“wxcav qavyta tyq fdvq
yty fdvq qavyta tyq dyv qdtq
yqdtq qavyta tyq ty fdvq”
“In The Beginning was the word.
And the word was with God.
And the word was God.”
“Rabbi Meir, one of the most important teachers of the Mishnah [early part of the Talmud], relates: “
“When I was studying with Rabbi Akiba, I used to put vitriol in the ink and he said nothing. But when I went to Rabbi Ishmael, he asked me: My son, what is your occupation? I answered: I am a scribe [of the Torah]. And he said to me: My son, be careful in your work, for it is the work of God; if you omit a single letter, or write a letter too many, you will destroy the whole world…”
Quoted from within: On The Kabbalah And Its Symbolism
Gershom Gerhard Scholem
Shocken books – New York 1969
Randomness, chaos, calamities, irregular events – things out of the ordinary, are more infrequent on larger scales, yet, seeing as larger processes take longer to play out, what is random, chaotic or irregular takes longer to play out, and can even last for multiple generations. So, when a random event in celestial realms occurs, it may seem to be a permanent and regular and normal state of affairs, dominating several generations of life on Earth.
If you get hit by a rock, your wound will heal within days to a week.
If Earth gets hit by a similar scale rock, the effects (although wildly different), would take much much longer to heal, maybe even hundreds of years, maybe even thousands of years in the worst cases.
When a comet breaks up, the fragments within the meteor stream it feeds can take centuries or millennia to fully disintegrate or for all the impacts to fully play out, to empty the meteor stream of threats. This random period of sky-firework-displays and concentrated bombardment (over hundreds or maybe a thousand years), may then seem ordinary business as usual for the generations living within that relatively long span of time (in the eyes of us humans).
If you get a sunburn, you can heal within a week or two.
If the sun goes berserk and bombards Earth with showers of plasma, and cooks the mountaintops, it could take decades, maybe centuries, maybe even a thousand years, for Earth to fully recover.
If a lightbulb in your home flickers – goes dim for a moment, it is usually a temporary dip in voltage, usually caused by something like a blender starting up.
If the sun flickers – goes dim, it usually lasts hundreds of years.
Small storms with local lightning bursts and local downpours, causing local floods, take less time to recover from, compared with global electrical discharges or global flooding.
Small volcanoes, and small local earthquakes don’t really take all that long to play out, but large volcanoes can shroud Earth in a dust cloud for a few years afterwards; and large disturbances in the crust can trigger a series of earthquakes taking decades to fully release all the stored energy, in a cascading sequence of earthquakes.
If our solar system were to wander through a Bok Globule (a dark cloud of interstellar dust), it would probably take thousands of years for us to exit and see the background of stars properly again, but it would still be generally a random event, in the grand scheme of things.
Large volcanoes erupt infrequently.
Large earthquake sequences are infrequent.
Large rocks hitting the Earth are infrequent.
Large plasma storms are infrequent.
Large electrical storms are infrequent.
Large floods are infrequent.
The solar system travelling through a Bok Globule would be extremely infrequent.
These are so infrequent, that none are within living memory.
But, when these infrequent events do happen, the chaos can persist for generations – so that by the time the dark age induced wraps up, there is no longer any living memory of what normal Earthly life looks like. In the meantime, significant changes in human thinking might have been induced, and even new religions may arise or be imposed, and new orders of power created or imposed.
Some of the unfortunate ones who find themselves born into a dark age of “regular” chaos, must wonder if those before prepared for this inevitability, or if humankind just stumbled into yet another period of hell on Earth, without trying to avoid it, and without bothering to do things like store grain.
Most people living during the 200 disease and pestilence-rich years following 535 AD, the most significant cooling period in the last 2000 years, when a thick haze engulfed Earth for 18 months, cutting incoming sunlight very significantly, plunging Earth into severe chaos – most of these people, after a generation or two, would probably not realize they are living in an abnormal situation.
Most people living during the centuries-long Medieval Warm Period, between around 900 and 1300 AD, might not have known that they were living in a warm period, especially after a generation or two began to enjoy the ice-free comfy lifestyle, and memory of 535 faded away.
Most people living during the the Little Ice Age, between around 1315 to 1850, peaking between 1645 and 1715, would probably not be aware that they were living in a Little Ice Age. Astronomer Edmund Halley, having lived most of his life in the depths of the last recorded significant dip in solar output (this Little Ice Age), never saw an aurora (northern lights) until he was sixty years old. So, this irregularity – the lack of aurora due to a temporarily dimming sun, can span an entire human lifetime, maybe longer, and may seem to be business as usual.
Dark Ages, brought forth by large disturbances, do not immediately induce ignorance and loss of memory, it may take multiple generations to lose knowledge and wisdom previously enjoyed. Books, oral traditions, good-cheer, good-will, and luck, can keep the memory alive for a few generations. Likewise, when these disturbances are cleared up, and we wipe our eyes clean of the dust of the dark age, and flourish under newly prosperous conditions, it may take multiple generations to shake off the ignorance and restore memory – memory of past civilizations – memory of former ages, dark and bright. The effects of burning books, burning “witches”, enslaving people, and committing genocide, can keep the minds of men and women stagnant and ignorant for generations after a dark age wraps up, well over 170 years now in our particular situation today. The same was seen at the transition between the dark ages induced by the severe global cooling of 535 AD, and the Medieval Warm Period – where you had Vikings continue Dark-Age habits, well into the beginning of a new prosperous warming phase.
On larger scales, besides sudden chaos, there are also long regular cycles – repeated patterns – of things not necessarily chaotic or random, but cyclical disturbances, forcing things like massive migrations, not necessarily all of a sudden, but still impacting Earthly life profoundly.
Most people dwelling in the Sahara region, while it is thick with lush greenery, full of wildlife, lakes, forests, mangrove marshes, and extensive river systems, from coast to coast to coast, – most people dwelling in this are not aware that the Sahara region will eventually return to desert, like clockwork.
Most people dwelling in the Sahara region, while it is desert, barren, without a scrap of wildlife, or green vegetation, and all the mega-lakes have dried up, and the forests have been cleared, – most people dwelling in this are not aware that the Sahara region will eventually return to lush green water-rich wilderness, like clockwork.
Every 20 thousand years or so, the Sahara region switches from desert to green paradise, and then back to desert. Seeing as this cycle is large, it is generally hard to notice and track, due to our relative speed of perception of these events, and so: during the thousands of years of desert, it seems like it has always been desert; and during the thousands of years of green, it seems to have always been green. This has been consistently transpiring for a few million years now.
Smack-dab in the middle of the Sahara, located 1000 miles south of Algiers, “Tassili n’ Ajjer”, which translates to “Plateau of Rivers”, a seemingly sarcastic name, is the site of the first modern discovery of the remnants of an amazingly rich, lush, green Sahara:
“Carved and painted on the rocky cliff walls, usually under an overhanging ledge, were pictures of animals now found only deep in the jungles and savannahs of Central Africa. Great processions of elephants, antelopes, and wild buffalo marched across the rock. Hippopotamuses, crocodiles, and water snakes swam over the stones. And baboons, wild boar, ostriches, and lions cavorted around the walls. All the animals now associated with tropical Africa are seen in the paintings – plus some prehistoric beasts that are now extinct.”
“Obviously, the climate of this area was once much, much different. Great life-giving rivers bordered by teeming, humid jungles must have once flowed through what is now only an endless sea of sand. How different life must have been for the people who lived here then!”
“The animal pictures most often appear on the exposed faces of high cliffs. Deeper inside the natural caves, however, the drawings show the people themselves: farming, dancing, hunting, herding animals, and playing music. The drawings have a simple, childish, and sometimes comic character, with the women looking like plump little butterballs. (Perhaps fat was beautiful for these people. Certainly they suffered no food shortages!)”
Where Did They Go?
Scholastic Book Services, 1976
“The hippopotamus, shown being hunted from canoes, indicates the existence of living rivers. And for a huge beast such as an elephant – which eats an average of 450 pounds of forage a day – to have lived on the Tassil N’ Ajjer and the surrounding area, there must have been a dense cover of vegetation. This must have existed, too, to satisfy the appetites of a large number of domesticated animals, whose existence can be assumed from the many painted pastoral scenes. …”
“… There is a wide variety of colour and pattern in the coats of the animals, and the cows’ udders are well-developed – both characteristics which point to an advanced stage of domestication. As far as can be judged from the paintings, the cattle seem to have been in excellent physical condition, and their graceful outlines are a further indication of very good pasture.”
The World’s Last Mysteries
Author of a short summary in this Reader’s Digest special
The Reader’s Digest Association, 1978
“… until about 5,000 years ago, Lake Chad still covered a considerable area. Rivers such as the Tilemsi, the Tafassasset, the Timmersoi and the Tamanrasset ran regularly, keeping the region moist and encouraging the growth of a luxuriant carpet of vegetation. The peaks of the Hoggar, the Tassili N’ Ajjer, and the Tibesti enjoyed a Mediterranean climate, and analyses of ancient pollens have shown that Allepo-pine grew there, together with cypresses, cedars, ash trees, evergreen oaks, nettle trees, walnuts, alders, myrtle, limes and olives.”
“ … The present camel period started around 2,000 years ago.”
Modern scientists working on these African Humid Periods, have explained this incredible and fascinating cyclical phenomenon, by crediting the Precession of the Equinoxes. This Precession is where we get the Zodiac. All of the constellations around the equator of the sun – these are the 12 signs of the Zodiac. If you are waiting for the sun to rise on the spring equinox, you will see a background of stars where the sun is about to rise, and whichever constellation is visible there, this is the current Zodiacal age you are in.
The official story goes something like this: Earth “wobbles” like a spinning top, counter-clockwise, by being pulled and tugged by the moon and the sun, completing a full “wobble” every 25,920 years. As a result, every 72 years, the background of stars shifts one degree in the sky. This is what is observed in the sky – the background of stars moves leftward (counter-clockwise), along the solar equator. So, after 2160 years, the background of stars has shifted 1/12th of the night sky, and we move into a new Zodiacal constellation (sign), and thus a new Zodiacal age. This “wobble” of the Earth can also be noticed at the poles, with the pole stars changing along with the Zodiacal sign on the horizon.
Then, they explain the regular greening and drying of the Sahara, every 20,000 years, as follows: Earth maintains the exact same orbit for millions of years, and with the slight eccentricity (slight oval shape) of this static unchanging orbit, Earth is slightly closer to the sun at the same exact spot in its orbit, and, as Earth wobbles (Precession), the point at which Earth is closest to the sun in its unchanging orbit will then hit a different proportion of ocean and land, in different hemispheres, thereby shifting the monsoon to North Africa. 3 million years of perfect precise wobbling and an unchanging orbit, to repeat this perfect cycle of 20,000 years.
This sounds all well and good, but basic common sense, rudimentary logic, and raw everyday observations, easily reveal this to be entirely inadequate to explain the African Humid Periods:
Precession has been measured by NASA, and it takes 25,772 years to complete a cycle by extrapolating the yearly miniscule change in the background of stars. Not 20,000 years. Even though NASA’s measurements have revealed a slight deviation with each measurement, the lowest figure anybody has suggested, derived from this deviation, is 24,000 years, and this 24,000 figure would never be accepted by current mainstream academia. So, how in the wobbling world can the figure of 20,000 years be associated with the Precession of the Equinoxes? Maybe precession is involved somehow, but this is a pretty significant discrepancy.
It is incredibly unlikely that Earth’s orbit – the exact orbit we see it enjoying today, has been precisely the same for millions of years! This is a huge assumption. There is an incredible array of phenomena that can move Earth. Even a slight nudge, would, over millions of years, translate into such a significant change in orbit, that this cannot possibly be the reason for a consistent greening of the Sahara, every 20,000 years, for millions of years, with clockwork accuracy and regularity. This is wishful naïve thinking.
The cause of Precession officially given – why Earth does this wobble, is, in fact, entirely ridiculous. We are told that the moon and the sun play a tug-o-war on our planet (mostly the moon). While the moon orbits, it moves above the equator for 9 years, then below the equator for 9 years. We are told that as the moon does this, it pulls and tugs at Earth, due to Earth’s slight bulge at its equator, thereby making Earth “wobble” – which makes the background of stars Precess (Precess = moving in a counter-clockwise direction). Walter Cruttenden, in his masterwork Lost Star of Myth and Time, in chapter 4, points out the fact that, if this “Luni-Solar” theory of Precession were to be true, then to calculate solar eclipses correctly, we would have to take this “Wobble” into consideration. If Earth were to wobble independently of the solar system, then we would have to adjust our eclipse predictions accordingly. So, every 72 years, the moon should appear a full degree off in the sky. After 216 years, the moon would have shifted by the full width of itself, and the eclipse calculation would completely miss the mark, and all spectators would be completely disappointed. Cruttenden cites two other examples that demonstrate that Earth is not wobbling independently of the solar system: Calculations of when Venus should visibly cross the sun, and: Calculations of when meteor streams are expected to arrive. Again, as with the moon and solar eclipses, if Earth were to “Wobble” independently of the solar system, these calculations would change dramatically within even just a couple hundred years.
Earth does not wobble.
The solar system rotates clockwise, and we see this as the counter-clockwise motion of the background of stars.
There must be another physical cause for the regular greening and drying of the Sahara.
It feels good to be the best.
It feels good to be the smartest.
It feels good to be the most advanced.
This notion – that over the hundreds of millions of years of advanced forms of life on Earth, we just so happen to be the very best, the very smartest, the very wisest, the most technologically advanced, and the most cultured beings to have ever roamed Earth’s surface; this notion reveals a childish simplicity, reveals problematic psychological needs among modern professionals and consumers of science publications, and is the most central and most fatal flaw in modern thought – scientific or otherwise, and this carries over from the sciences and academia, into our everyday thinking, and informs the way we see ourselves, and our future.
John Anthony West called it the ”Church of Progress”. He repeatedly and emphatically and eloquently described this as the single greatest blunder in modern thought, holding back important investigations which we are in sore need of conducting (investigations of things inner as well as outer).
The Church of Progress has been conflated with the Theory of Evolution. The Theory of Evolution, as it is currently described and promoted, has seamlessly incorporated the central dogmas of the Church of Progress, as if they were derived by fossil records.
This notion – of modern human supremacy, does not represent some sort of default logical position to take. How long does it take to go from barbarism and ignorance, with slave-trading, indentured servitude, inept agricultural practices, putrid sanitation, and consistent famine; all the way to Pokémon, toaster-ovens, stone-cutting power-saws, and space-robots? How long does this take? With the last 500 years of colonialism, burning of “witches”, genocide in the Americas, and other acts of terrible barbarism; this surely does not represent some sort of greatest pinnacle of culture and knowledge, with the church burning books and destroying the 1000 Mayan codices, and with us all toying with global thermo-nuclear annihilation. Surely Earth has seen more civilized conduct, more compassion and understanding, and more graceful application of technology.
It is often (correctly) stated that even today, with our high technology, we would not be able to build the pyramids. This sort of misses the mark. Go back only 1000 years, and ask yourself: could this society have built the pyramids? The first crusade saw the beheading of every last breathing soul in the city of Jerusalem. Do you think this culture could have accomplished a feat such as the pyramids? Do you really think these particular folks were just the next ladder in the advancement of culture and civilization, from Apes to us? Does every generation improve upon the previous? Does this pattern continue for millions of years – always evolving? Is this the only way to produce us modern humans and our modern civilization?
Even if you take a conservative view of human antiquity – and go back 5000 years to the “Stone Age”, when people and cultures were allegedly primitive, allegedly technologically simplistic, with allegedly low population levels. OK. That’s only 5000 years, to allegedly go from flint arrow-heads to Tomahawk missles! This is a miniscule stretch of time, geologically speaking. Anatomically modern humans (us), have been around for, at the very least: 200,000 years (according to conservative professionals). How can we assume that civilizations have never risen to our level (or beyond), during this time, on multiple occasions? Is it because we don’t see skyscrapers from 15,000 years ago? Is it because there are no power-saws from 30,000 years ago? Is it because there are no pocket calculators found from 45,000 years ago? Is it because we don’t have documents from 60,000 years ago? Is it because we don’t find wheels fabricated 75,000 years ago? Is it because we don’t see MegaFactories from 90,000 years ago?
The default logical position to take would be to trust that our ancestors, anatomically modern humans, were just as smart, maybe smarter than us in some ways at times, and were just as capable of significant technological advancements as we are today, and that multiple civilizations have risen and fallen over this vast span of time.
During the Gold Rush, in the Sierra Nevada mountains, near Sonora California, gold miners had dug deep tunnels into Table Mountain.
They found anatomically modern human bones and hundreds of human artifacts, like multiple stone mortars and pestles, ladles, and obsidian spear points:
“In 1891, George F. Becker told the American Geological Society that in the spring of 1869, Clarence King, director of the Survey of the Fortieth Parallel, and a respected geologist, was conducting research at Tuolomne Table Mountain. Becker stated:”
“At one point, close to the high bluff of basalt capping, a recent wash had swept away all talus and exposed the underlying compact, hard, auriferous gravel beds, which were beyond all question in place. In examining the exposure for fossils, he [King] observed the fractured end of what appeared to be a cylindrical mass of stone. The mass he forced out of its place with considerable difficulty on account of the hardness of the gravel in which it was tightly wedged. It left behind a perfect cast of itself in the matrix and proved to be part of a polished stone implement, no doubt a pestle.”
“Mr. King is perfectly sure this implement was in place and that it formed an original part of the gravels in which he found it. It is difficult to imagine a more satisfactory evidence than this of the occurrence of implements in the auriferous, pre-glacial, sub-basaltic gravels.”
“From this description and the modern geological dating of the Table Mountain Strata, it is apparent that this object was over 9 million years old.”
James Carvin, describing a hatchet found at Table Mountain:
“This is to certify that I, the undersigned, did about the year 1858, dig out of some mining claims known as the Stanislaus Company, situated in Table Mountain, Tuolumne County, opposite O’Byrn’s Ferry, on the Stanislaus River, a stone hatchet… with a hole through it for a handle. Its size was four inches across the edge, and length about six inches. It had evidently been made by human hands. The above relic was found about sixty to seventy-five feet from the surface in gravel, under the basalt, and about 300 feet from the mouth of the tunnel. There were also some mortars found, at about the same time and place.”
In 1870, Llewellyn Pierce, describing a 31.5-inch-wide mortar found in the Boston Tunnel Company mine, at Table Mountain:
“Thls is to certify that I, the undersigned, have this day given to Mr. C. D. Voy, to be preserved in his collection of ancient stone relics, a certain stone mortar, which has evidently been made by human hands, which was dug up by me, about the year 1862, under Table Mountain, in gravel, at a depth of about 200 feet from the surface, under the basalt, which was over sixty feet deep, and about 1,800 feet in from the mouth of the tunnel. Found in the claim known as the Boston Tunnel Company."
A skull fragment found at Table Mountain, is housed at The Museum of the Natural History Society of Boston:
From a shaft in Table Mountain, 180 feet below the surface, in gold drift… Overlying strata of basaltic compactness and hardness. Found July, 1857. Given to Rev. C.F. Winslow by Hon. Paul K. Hubbs, August 1857.
On August 2, 1890, J H. Neale, supervisor and chief engineer of Montezuma Tunnel at Table Mountain, signed the following statement about discoveries made by him:
“In 1877 Mr. J.H. Neale was superintendent of the Montezuma Tunnel Company, and ran the Montezuma Tunnel into the gravel underlying the lava at Table Mountain, Tuolumne County. … The mouth is approximately 1200 feet from the present edge of the solid lava cap of the mountain. At a distance of between 1400 and 1500 feet from the mouth of the tunnel, or of between 200 and 300 feet beyond the edge of the solid lava, Mr. Neale saw several spear heads, of some dark rock and nearly one foot in length. On exploring further, he himself found a small mortar 3 or 4 inches in diameter and of irregular shape. This was discovered within a foot or two of the spear-heads. He then found a large well-formed pestle, now the property of Dr. R. I. Bromley, and nearby a large and very regular mortar, also at present the property of Dr. Bromley."
“All of these relics were found the same afternoon, and were all within a few feet of one another and close to the bed-rock, perhaps within a foot of it. Mr. Neale declares that it is utterly impossible that these relics can have reached the position in which they were found excepting at the time the gravel was deposited, and before the lava cap formed. There was not the slightest trace of any disturbance of the mass or of any natural fissure into it by which access could have been obtained either there or in the neighbourhood.”
The layer of gold-bearing gravels where they found these bones and tools, is dated to between 38-55 million years old.
In these layers of gold-bearing gravels are also plant and animal fossils that date to between 38-55 million years old.
Layers above have been dated, using the Potassium-Argon method, up to 33 million years old.
“In a paper read before the American Geological Society and published in its journal, geologist George F. Becker (1891. pp. 192-193) said:”
"It would have been more satisfactory to me individually if I had myself dug out these implements, but I am unable to discover any reason why Mr. Neale's statement is not exactly as good evidence to the rest of the world as my own would be.”
“He was as competent as I to detect any fissure from the surface or any ancient workings, which the miner recognizes instantly and dreads profoundly. Someone may possibly suggest that Mr. Neale's workmen 'planted' the implements, but no one familiar with mining will entertain such a suggestion for a moment .... The auriferous gravel is hard picking, in large part it requires blasting, and even a very incompetent supervisor could not possibly be deceived in this way. In short, there is, in my opinion, no escape from the conclusion that the implements mentioned in Mr. Neale's statement actually occurred near the bottom of the gravels, and that they were deposited where they were found at the same time with the adjoining pebbles and matrix."
All these accounts (and many more), are extensively detailed in:
The Hidden History of the Human Race
Michael Cremo and Richard Thomson
Section 5.5.3 - Tuolumne Table Mountain
The Auriferous Gravels of the Sierra Nevada of California
Harvard University’s Peabody Museum of Natural History
Dr. Josiah Dwight Whitney
State Geologist of California
J.D Whitney, Harvard-educated, chief geologist of California, was the one who reported these findings. Mount Whitney is named after him. His report was published by Harvard University.
Dr. William Holmes, an anthropologist working at the Smithsonian Institution in 1880, dismissed the report, which was full of proper geologic evidence, with this argument:
“If Professor Whitney had fully appreciated the story of human evolution as it is understood today, he would have hesitated to announce the conclusions formulated, despite the imposing array of testimony with which he was confronted.”
Species Change has been confused with a very specific story of human evolution, and of human antiquity. Note how William Holmes above said it was “…the story of human evolution as it is understood today…”. That’s precisely right – it’s a story, a very specific story.
These are two separate concepts:
1. “House pets were bred from wild animals, and birds of a species separated by islands change over time to suit the needs of their isolated environment, and Species Change in other such ways.”
2. “Humans recently evolved over extremely short geological time-scales, and civilizations only arose starting 6-10 thousand years ago, and there was no writing, mathematics, astronomy or engineering before that, and pyramids can only have been built within 6000 years, because there was no culture other than primitive stone-age farmers, hunters, and gatherers before 6000 years ago, and before 11,500 years ago, only cave-people hunting and gathering food, could possibly have existed, because things only ever evolve, including civilization.”
Indeed they do.
This is fact.
Nobody needs to call this a “theory”.
We could just call it “The Fact that Species Change”.
“It is impossible for anatomically modern humans to have roamed this Earth before a couple hundred thousand years ago, and human civilizations only arose starting maximum 11,500 years ago, and before that we were only cavemen and cavewomen, and after that, and only after that, we have the wheel, cities, writing, mathematics, etc… because we have not found skyscrapers or power saws or calculators or microscopes or telescopes or cellphones, in the archaeological record before 11,500 years ago”.
This, on the other hand, is a very specific and narrow theory, that requires loads of evidence, yet to be presented. And, there’s plenty of evidence to the contrary.
It is not logical to treat this as the default assumption.
It is not helpful to lump this together with the fact that Species Change.
There are plenty of other reasonable scenarios. It only took us a few hundred years to go from tossing our sewage into the streets, burning witches at the stake, and shipping slaves as cargo as casually as we do commodities like sugar or rice; all the way to plastic surgery and robots on Mars. A few millennia can present enough of an opportunity to go from primitive barbarism to super-computers. And it would only take a few millennia to wipe clean all traces of our advanced accomplishments, especially if we were hit by a huge space-rock or solar ejection, or a global flood. There’s nothing to suggest that it has never happened before. Earth is littered with craters. Earth is littered with rock carvings depicting strange sky-disturbances. We only recently discovered the existence of mega-lightning discharges – huge plasma formations above the clouds, kilometers high, which we do not even understand yet. Traces of giant floods abound, like the scablands of the Pacific Northwest. Tales of severe volcanic and earthquake and tsunami disasters are common from antiquity. The sun is significantly variable in its output. Climate changes all the time.
The assumption that we are the first to do science is a philosophical opinion, not some sort of scientific fact, and does not represent some logical default position to take. This assumption reveals a massive underestimation of the potential of our ancestors to do basic things like make a wheel, build a house, or saddle a horse, or build a barn for the horse, or figure out that Earth is a sphere. Our characterization of human souls before 6000 years ago is derogatory, insulting, and reveals more about us than it does about them. To depict anybody and everybody before 11,600 years ago as an unkept, toothless, cross-eyed, grunting, hairy moron in loin cloths living in a damp and dreary cave, with vermin crawling all over, reveals a huge lack of imagination of what must’ve been possible for 190,000 years beforehand.
For example: not a single anatomically modern human soul, for 190,000 years, noticed that seeds are the start of a new plant, and so they never bothered to store any and sow them the following year?! Professionals who insist that nobody performed agriculture for 190,000 years of our history, have probably never worked the land at all, and know nothing of what human ingenuity, even in isolation, can produce, especially in periods of warmth and abundance; and demonstrate a complete lack of imagination of circumstances that may befall humanity, and show a huge lack of respect for our ancestors.
We don’t just underestimate the intelligence of plants and animals, we also seem to grossly underestimate our own abilities, and our own intellect, of our very own species.
Termites have not changed much, over millions of years. They are termed “living fossils”. Just because Species Change, this does not necessarily mean that our species has been constantly evolving, and we are at the pinnacle of this evolutionary tree, in our time.
If termites haven’t changed, it should therefore be entirely possible that creatures like us have been around for millions of years as well, and could even be a necessary part of the living network of interactions that sustains life itself on Earth - protecting earthly life from space-rocks, solar outbursts, severe fires, severe floods, severe droughts, severe cold, and whatever other nasty calamities that would threaten to extinguish or smother surface-life here – on this open-faced surface roasting around a weird giant ball of plasma, with rocks flying all over the place. We might be the ones regularly saving seeds and fungi, and preserving “two of each beast”.
The majority of stuff we see in the observable universe is plasma.
We have barely begun to understand it.
We have barely even begun to appreciate its importance in our observable universe.
Ball lightning – independently floating and roving short-lived globules of plasma, are barely understood, and rarely studied.
Sprites – immense plasma formations 50-90 kilometers above storm clouds, were only recently discovered, and are barely understood. Other forms of this ”Megalightning” have been discovered only recently, and are yet to be understood.
Plasma interacts with magnetism and electricity, in ways we barely understand. The magnetic field that a moving stream of plasma induces, can curve, twist, and pinch the stream itself, and this often results in pairs of filaments. There is also a slew of other shapes that plasma can take with all this twisting and pinching, which can be reproduced in the laboratory – the torus being the most fundamental (doughnut-shape), to oodles of whirling gnarled snakes twisting around each other, to ladders with distinct rungs of concentrated plasma (multiple doughnuts in fact – all tied together by a common filament, while remaining distinct, and while being mysteriously limited to around 9 doughnuts on the skewer).
We barely understand magnetism, and its dynamics shape plasmas and what they do. For example: two fields of magnetism occupying the same area – the same region of space, don’t necessarily combine together into a single field. If you group together 7 magnets into a single unit, by arranging a central large magnet pointed in one polarity, and 6 smaller magnets attached all around the central large magnet, surrounding it, pointing in the opposite magnetic polarity, this combined set of 7 magnets, with different polarities, can both pull and repel other magnets and materials surrounding it, thereby always keeping a constant distance between them while never separating. Like a tractor beam, other objects will be tethered and move with this combination of magnets without ever touching! So, magnetic fields don’t always connect and cancel each other’s forces or combine forces to produce a graduated field; they can co-exist and thus repel and attract other things at the same time, within the same portion of space. These, and other aspects of electro-magnetism, can shape plasma into truly spectacular and often volatile and unstable formations.
Our ancestors, all over the world, witnessed stupendous plasma formations in the sky, specifically toward magnetic south, while being bombarded with lightning strikes, which emit x-ray radiation, and recorded their observations on millions of stone carvings. Even in the Americas, the same repeated figures appear etched on stone.
Anthony Peratt, after spending years conducting high-energy-density plasma experiments at Los Alamos National Laboratory, thereby being familiar with the shapes that plasma can take, was inspired by comparative mythologist David Talbott to investigate these petroglyphs (rock carvings). David Talbott felt that the common petroglyphs were clearly showing plasma formations in the sky, recorded by ancient peoples all around the world, an idea initially proposed to Talbott by Wallace Thornhill.
Anthony Peratt then spent years travelling the world and documenting these petroglyphs. He says they are pretty much found on any granite or basalt surface or any good rock palette that has a magnetic south orientation, only where there is a generally unblocked view of magnetic south, but also where there is good shielding from the most concentrated light closest to Earth (to be shielded from that intense radiation at the horizon), and shielded from surrounding radiation from the intense lightning storms, and that the nature of the drawings changes with latitude (where a different view of the plasma formations in the sky produces differently-angled images according to the latitude). If there is no view of magnetic south, and no shielding of the intense concentration of plasma at the horizon, there are no petroglyphs, even with perfectly good rock surfaces available.
Essentially, what ancient people saw was aurora on steroids, alongside intense lightning strikes. A time to duck and cover, and maybe live underground for a while. At different densities of plasma and different energies, these take on different shapes. For example, a funnel shape following the shape of Earth’s magnetic field at the poles, is commonly etched on rocks all over the world, and, Peratt points out, at northern latitudes, it would have looked exactly like North American Native headdresses, which we today call “War Bonnets”. The original function, Peratt implies, was to reproduce the spectacle beheld in the heavens, and to memorialize the important event.
One of the most common figures found all over the world, etched in stone, is a seemingly humanoid form, but with outstretched arms pointing up and outstretched legs pointing down, and often with two dots on either side of its torso. This “Squatter Man” is found, with the distinct two dots, all around the world, from China to Italy to New Mexico, in ancient pre-Columbian rock carvings. The Dogon tribe, living on the edge of the Sahara, in Mali, perform, to this day, rituals with a mask in the exact unmistakable shape of Squatter Man.
Anthony Peratt believes that he has an explanation for the common Squatter Man petroglyphs: as a plasma formation with a bowl-shaped formation at the top, an inverted bowl shaped formation at the bottom, and a torus (doughnut-shape) in the middle, with the common current stream connecting them together (torso). He postulates that, from the perspective of ancient peoples, the light from the bowls would be concentrated on its edges, and the light from the doughnut formation would also be concentrated on its outer edges, because, from our perspective, more plasma is concentrated in these regions; thereby producing the illusion of arms, legs, and independent dots.
These millions of petroglyphs were often etched in inaccessible locations, away from known population centers, with some being only accessible by rope on precipitous cliff walls (again, facing magnetic south, but shielded from the intense radiation from the horizon). These rock carvings were clearly not located for public display. They were recording what they saw: fire from the sky:
“At the head of the Egyptian delta, where the river Nile divides, there is a certain district called the district of Sais, and the great city of this district is also called Sais, and is the city from which sprang Amasis the king. And the citizens have a deity who is their foundress and she is called in the Egyptian tongue Neith, which is asserted by them to be the same who the Greeks called Athene.
Now, the citizens of this city are great lovers of the Athenians, and say that they are in some way related to them.
Thither came Solon [the Greek – circa 600 BC], who was received by them with great honour; and he asked the priests, who were most skilful in such matters, about antiquity, and made the discovery that neither he nor any other Greek knew anything worth mentioning about the times of old.
And wishing to lead them on to talk about early times, he embarked on an account of the earliest events known here [in Greece] telling them about Phoroneus, said to be the first man, and Niobe, and how Deucallion and Pyrrha survived the flood, and he traced the genealogy of their descendants, and attempted to reckon how many years old were the events of which he was speaking, and to give the dates.
Thereupon, one of the priests, who was of very great age, said: ‘O Solon, Solon. You Greeks are but children. There’s no such thing as an old Greek.’
Solon, hearing this, said, ‘What do you mean?’
‘I mean to say, that in mind you are all young. There is no old opinion handed down among you by ancient tradition, nor any science which is hoary with age. And the reason is this: There have been, and there will be again, many different calamities to destroy mankind, the greatest of them by fire and water, lesser ones by countless other means.
Your own story of Phaethon, child of Helios [which personifies the sun], who harnessed his father’s chariot, but was unable to guide it along his father’s course and so burnt up things on Earth and was himself destroyed by a thunderbolt, is a mythical version of the truth that there is at long intervals a variation in the course of the heavenly bodies and a consequent widespread destruction by fire of things on the Earth.
When this happens, those who live in the mountains or in high and dry places suffer more than those living by rivers or by the sea. As for us, the Nile, our own regular saviour, is freed to preserve us in this emergency.
When, on the other hand, the gods purge the Earth with a deluge of water, the herdsmen and shepherds in the mountains escape, but those of you who live in cities are swept by the waters into the sea. But here [in Egypt] water never falls on land from above either then or at any other time, but rises up naturally from below.
This is the reason why our traditions here are the oldest preserved, though it is true that in all places, [including Egypt], human beings are always increasing or decreasing in number – except in places where it is excessively cold or excessively hot [without any populations at all].
In our temples we have preserved from earliest times a written record of any great or splendid achievement or notable event which has come to our ears whether it occurred in your part of the world, here, or anywhere else. Whereas with you and other nations, having just provided yourselves with letters and other necessities of civilization; when the stream from heaven descends like a pestilence, it leaves only those of you who are destitute of letters and education; and thus you have to begin all over again as children.”
From Plato’s Timaeus
Plato specifies that the date given to Solon, by the Egyptian priests, of a major deluge, which saw Atlantis struck by earthquake and inundation, as 9600 BC, so 11,600 years ago. This is the precise geologically accurate date of the end of the last great ice age. This date is the most significant date, geologically speaking, in the last few tens of thousands of years, that can now be seen in the ice cores, and clearly marked in the soil strata above a layer of black soot, and represents a severe and sudden rise in temperature, to the tune of 8-10 degrees centigrade, with sea levels rising.
For a fairy tale, this is a very magical coincidence!
According to mainstream understanding, 9500 BC is when agriculture officially “started” in the alleged “cradle of civilization”. Before this: no agriculture – at all – ever.
When myths, from across the world, on separate continents, describe fiery chariots, earthquakes and a global flood, long ago, with survivors finding refuge on mountaintops, with Solon’s Atlantis “myth” specifically giving a date of 9600 BC – an immensely significant geological date – the beginning of our era – the beginning of our time – the beginning of our geological epoch – the beginning of the “Holocene” period – the beginning of the current interglacial period – the exact point that scientists now say when countless large beasts like the Wholly Mammoths bit the dust; this should give us pause when rushing to the conclusion, based on archaeological research alone (evidence from the earth), when it is stated in the account that the soils were swept clean, which would have removed evidence that we depend on for our conclusion that agriculture was invented 100 years later, in 9500 BC.
Here is Plato’s description of the soil in and around Athens before the 9600 BC point, and how it has changed since:
“And the soil was more fertile than that of any other country and so could maintain a large army exempt from the calls of agricultural labour. As evidence of this fertility we can point to the fact that the remnant of it still left is a match for any soil in the world for the variety of its harvests and pasture. And in those days quantity matched quality.
What proof then, can we offer that it is fair to call it now a mere remnant of what it once was? It runs out like a long peninsula from the mainland to the sea, and the sea basin round it is very deep. So the result of the many great floods that have taken place in the last nine thousand years (the time that has elapsed since then) is that the soil, washed away from the high land in these periodic catastrophes, forms no alluvial deposit of consequence as in other places, but is carried out and lost in the deeps.
You are left (as with little islands) with something like the skeleton of a body wasted from disease; the rich, soft soil has all run away, leaving the land nothing but skin and bone. But in those days, the damage had not yet taken place, the hills had high crests, the rocky plain of Phelleus was covered with rich soil, and the mountains were covered by thick woods, of which there are some traces today.”
From Plato’s Critias
In the Colorado and Utah area, there is a native people called the Utes (pronounced “Yutes”), which gave us the word “Utah”.
“Once upon a time, the Hair-God was sitting with his family by the campfire in the woods, anxiously awaiting the return of the Wayward-Sun-God. Wearied with long watching, the Hair-God fell asleep, and the Wayward-Sun-God came so near, that he scorched the naked shoulder of the Hair-God. Foreseeing the vengeance which would thus be wrought, he fled back to his cave beneath the earth. The Hair-God awoke in great anger and speedily determined to go fight the Wayward-Sun-God.
After a long journey, with many adventures, the Hair-God came to the brink of the earth, and there watched long and patiently, until at last, the Wayward-Sun-God, coming out, the Hair-God shot an arrow at his face, but the fierce heat consumed the arrow, before it had finished its intended course. Then another arrow was thrown, but it was also consumed. And another. And still another, until a single arrow remained in his quiver, and this was a magical arrow, that had never missed its mark. The Hair-God, holding it in his hand, lifted the arrow-tip to his eye, and immersed it in a divine tear. Then the arrow was sped and struck the Wayward-Sun-God full in the face, and the Wayward-Sun-God was severed into a thousand fragments, which fell to the earth, causing a great conflagration.
Then the Hair-God, fled from the destruction he had wrought. As he fled, the burning earth consumed his feet, consumed his legs, consumed his body, consumed his hands and his arms, all were consumed save his head, which bowled across all of the valleys and the mountains, fleeing this destruction of the burning earth. Until, at last, swollen with heat, the eyes of the Hair-God burst and the tears gushed forth in a flood, which spread over the earth and extinguished the fire. The Wayward-Sun-God was now conquered, and he appeared before the council of the gods to await sentence. In that long council, were established the days and the nights, the seasons and the years, and the length thereof. And the Sun-God was condemned to travel across the firmament by the same trail, day after day, until the end of time.”
Ancient depictions and characterisations of space-rocks and coronal mass ejections, (events which are way more common than is assumed or even postulated or even imagined these days), are never depictions of smiling happy faces bringing gifts and good cheer and spectacular wonders for us to sit back and marvel at, like a free fireworks display. Many ancient peoples knew very well, that these are menacing “fire-breathing dragons”, harbingers of serious doom, and should be feared.
The Dragon at a Chinese new-year festival is not a friendly character. Firecrackers are used to freak the crowd out. The Dragon doesn’t just happily come to greet the spectators – it menaces them – it is up in your face. It is obviously a message, meant to strike fear into your heart, which left a mark on the human story and the human psyche, at its very core. Anyways – what the heck is a Dragon, and why is it found portrayed in the Americas as well???
We would do well to pay attention to ancient traditions, around the world.
Gradualism, in geology, is the notion that geological changes only transpire incrementally. The Grand Canyon was carved over millions of years, at pretty much the same rate we see it forming today.
Uniformitarianism, in geology, is the notion that the only way rocks have eroded or have been deposited, is precisely the way we see erosion and deposition today. The Grand Canyon was carved only by the river we see today – that is the only mechanism. “The Present is the Key to the Past”.
In a council convened well over a hundred years ago, the cardinal bishops of the Church of Progress, decided unanimously to adopt, by decree, both Gradualism and Uniformitarianism as central dogmas, to explain every single feature on Earth. Those choosing to invoke catastrophe or novel mechanisms were deemed heretics. Even after being forced to admit the dinosaurs were done in by a comet, and that a mass extinction event occurred at the end of the last ice age, in 9600 BC, with vast numbers of species biting the dust, like Giant Beaver, Sabertooth Cats, Short-Face Bear, Irish Elk, Giant Ground Sloths, Dire Wolves, Whooly Mammoths, and a host of their friends; even after being forced to admit that there were calamitous floods in the Pacific Northwest; even after being shown the wild temperature swings in the ice core records – sudden temperature swings on the order of 10 degrees centigrade, and also swinging cyclically in great ages of ice; even after all these years with all of these investigations, the cardinal bishops of the Church have managed to keep everybody convinced of a gradual, consistent, predictable and uniform view of life on Earth’s surface.
This has trickled down even into popular thinking.
The Church of Progress, with its specific formulation of the Theory of Evolution, drawing upon Gradualism and Uniformitarianism, have convinced most of the billions of people roaming Earth today that: we should expect a constant climate over millions of years, not changing in temperature more than 1 maybe 2 degrees, and glaciers should always maintain themselves steadily, and coastlines should always remain the same; we are the very pinnacle of creation, the smartest and wisest and most cultured beings to have ever graced the universe, and we can only expect to evolve, never devolve; any old tale of chaos and calamity and lost civilization is just invented fantasy, just primitive “myth”; we are at such a pinnacle of progress that we have little left to learn, little left to study, and there are few discoveries to be made – “it’s all been done”; archaeologists have scoured and analysed and puzzled over every square inch of all sites; and anything to be known about geology, astrophysics and quantum physics is already pretty much in the bag, and for any question there is an expert on-call with the answer derived from the strict a-political application of the scientific method alone.
On December 18th, 2018, a space-rock trying to penetrate our atmosphere at 70,000 miles per hour, exploded 16 miles above the ocean, between Russia and Alaska, with the power of 8-9 Hiroshimas.
Flying through space, at a speed of 40,000 miles per hour, on a February morning, in 2013, a rock, with a diameter of a bowling lane, found itself caught by the Earth’s gravity, and starts pummelling through (what it feels to be) a very thick atmosphere, over the city of Chelyabinsk.
Unable to withstand the massive buildup of heat and pressure, at 18 miles above the city, the rock exploded. ‘Exploded’ is a massive understatement. It was 30 times brighter than the sun. The shockwave, from 18 miles above, injured 1400 people. The blast was 25 times more powerful than Hiroshima.
In July 1994, when fragment “G” from comet Shoemaker-Levy-9, exploded above Jupiter, it was visible from Earth, and left a cloud larger than the Earth, and this cloud lasted for almost a year:
In March of 1989, just as the insane global thermo-nuclear standoff was carefully being brought to a resolution, a severe ejection from the sun induced a massive geomagnetic storm on Earth, with auroras visible as far south as Cuba, and a red glow appeared in the night sky over most of the world.
Satellites in polar orbits tumbled out of control for several hours.
Communications went haywire.
Quebec, with its huge array of Hydro-electric dams, lost power for 12 hours.
In August of 1972, in the middle of the barbaric incursion in South-East Asia, a solar ejection caused a geomagnetic storm, triggering thousands of U.S. Destructor magnetic-influence sea mines, to explode, in the waters off of the Hon La area, off of the Vietnamese coast.
One of the satellites of the U.S. War Satellite Communication System, was toasted.
The U.S. Air Force’s nuclear detonation monitoring system, Vela, sounded the big alarm. Thank God humans were there to interpret the data properly!
On the day the sea mines went off, the aurora were so bright, they cast shadows.
On February 12th 1947, eyewitnesses in the Sikhote-Alin Mountains, observed around 10 tonnes of space rock, brighter than the sun, descending from the north. The bright flash and the deafening sound were observed for 190 miles around the point of impact. A smoke trail, estimated at 20 miles long, remained in the sky for several hours.
As the rock entered the atmosphere, it began to break apart, and the fragments fell together.
At about 3 miles above ground, the largest mass apparently broke up in a violent explosion.
The strewn field of meteorites covered an elliptical area of about half a square mile. Some of the fragments made impact craters, the largest of which was about 85 feet across and 20 feet deep. Fragments of the rock were also driven into the surrounding trees.
On August 13th 1930, over the area of the Curuçá River in Brazil, three space-rocks exploded into tremendous fireballs a mile above the jungle floor. The resulting “hurricane of flame” destroyed 800 square miles of rainforest.
The locals were convinced it was the end of the world.
In May of 1921, a solar storm up to 10 times stronger than the 1989 solar storm, zapped telegraph systems, with some even sending out flames and igniting fires. Undersea cables also suffered from the storm.
Electric Plants Wrecked As Strange Visitor Appears on Michigan Indiana Line.
Chicago November 27 1919
“Telegraph snd telephone communication and electric lighting plants in cities in southern Michigan and northern Indiana were out of commission today as a result of a remarkable phenomenon, believed by several scientists to have been a gigantic meteor which, rushing earthward from the east appeared to dissolve as it approached the earth near Athens, Michigan, last night.
The phenomenon is reported to have assumed various forms in its race earthward, ranging from a brilliant illumination to a heavy rain accompanied by heavy thunder.
The phenomenon was seen over Chicago by several persons. It was reported here shortly before 8 o'clock. It appeared over the lake and resembled in appearance an extraordinarily prolonged flash of heat lightning.
Athens, Battle Creek, and Three Oaks Michigan, report considerable damages to property. At Athens, it is said, there was an earthquake, continuing for fully three minutes accompanied by a heavy rain and windstorm, a loud clap of thunder, and a flash of light in the sky of longer duration than lightning.
At La Porte, South Bend, Fort Wayne, Warsaw, and other Indiana points, windows were broken by the concussion.
The Calumet Electric Light Company, at Kalamazoo Michigan, and several smaller plants throughout this section of the country were temporarily disabled.”
“ … At about 9:30 pm on the 9th of February 1913 there suddenly appeared in the north-western sky a fiery red body, which quickly grew larger as it came nearer, and which was then seen to be followed by a long tail. To some observers the tail seemed like the glare from the open door of a furnace; to others it was like the illumination from a searchlight; to others like the stream of sparks blown away from a burning chimney by a strong wind. The body moved forward on a perfectly horizontal path with peculiar, majestic, dignified deliberation; and, continuing its course, it moved on to the south-east, where it disappeared in the distance.
Before the astonishment aroused by this first meteor had subsided, other bodies were seen coming from the north-west, emerging from precisely the same place as the first one. Onward they moved, at the same deliberate pace, in twos and threes, with tails streaming behind… They all traversed the same path and headed for the same point in the south-east. Gradually the bodies became smaller, until the last ones were but red sparks, some of which were snuffed out before they reached their destination.
As to the number of bodies, there was a great diversity of statement. The usual estimate was from 15 to 20; some said 60 to 100; while others said there were thousands. The entire time occupied by the display was about three minutes. Just as the bodies were vanishing … there was heard in many places a rumbling sound like distant thunder.
The stretch of country over which the display was seen is unprecedented. In the present case persons dwelling 2,500 miles apart saw the same bodies. Moreover, the description furnished by observers in Bermuda, in Ontario, and in Saskatchewan do not materially differ.
Observations of the size of the bodies were very discordant, but there is sufficient evidence to show that they were of considerable size. Several observers considered the leading body to have a diameter equal to that of the full moon, or nearly so. One observer estimated the diameter at half that of the full moon, and another at 1/15th of the moon’s diameter. The last estimate gives a real diameter of 123 feet. The largest bodies were probably at least 100 feet in diameter. The tail of the largest meteor is estimated to have been 39 miles long.”
Gavin J. Burns
An Extraordinary Meteor Display
Journal of the British Astronomical Association, 1913
“The year 1910 was a strange one for many people in northern Idaho and western Montana. The superstitious and some of the religious saw portents of weird, calamitous events to come as fiery Haley’s Comet zoomed on spectacular paths across the heavens.”
The Big Burn: The Northwest’s Great Forest Fire of 1910
Don Miller and Stan Cohen (1978)
Pictorial Histories Publication Company
“On August 20th  came the big blow-up. Out of the southwest came a gale. The sky turned the same ghastly yellow that had been seen at Hinckley and Peshtigo years before; then everything went dark, dark as night. The flames were on their way everywhere.”
“It happened on the night of August 20th. A forest guard sleeping deep in the Bitterroot Mountains was awakened by one of his crew of 30. He insisted that “a star had fallen nearby” setting a small fire. Thus the great 1910 fire began in Montana. Smaller fires had already been raging all over the state … … but they were “under control” thanks to a fire-fighting force of 3000 men and soldiers already in the woods. But the fire that began on August 20th was different. The wind suddenly turned into a near tornado. Travelling with the force of the wind, estimated at 70 miles an hour, the inferno leaped canyons, lakes, and rivers, devouring everything in its path.“
Forests and Forestry in the American States
A Reference Anthology Compiled by the National Association of State Foresters
Ralph R. Widner
“The wind of the blazing demon roared and blew with such force that it threatened to topple seasoned riders from their horses; it howled and screamed and downed mammoth trees. The heat was unbelievably intense. As the red mass boiled and swirled, snapped and snarled dragon-like, it swooped down on ranger Ed Thenon’s crew of thirty men on Moose Creek on August 20th. About ten o’clock that night the sky was aglow with a pink color… … Thenon was awakened by pine needles and debris falling on his tent, but it wasn’t until Louis Fitting… … thought he saw a falling star begin a fire across the creek from the camp that Thenon ordered his men to move the supplies to a sand strip on Moose Creek.”
The Big Burn: The Northwest’s Great Forest Fire of 1910
Don Miller and Stan Cohen (1978)
Pictorial Histories Publication Company
On June 30th 1908, in the Tunguska region of central Siberia, an area of inaccessible forest, surging rivers and roadless steppe, a tongue of blue-white flame shaped like a “spear”, “cylinder” or “pipe” or “pillar”, 140 feet long (like a 14 story building), this menacing fireball larger and more brilliant than the sun, streaked across the sky, at an angle, leaving a trail of dust behind it, and accompanied by a deafening roar, thunderous crashes and, after around ten minutes of having 2 suns shining in the sky, a terrific explosion, between 3 and 6 miles above ground:
A black mushroom-shaped cloud rose up to the stratosphere.
Above that, a huge (forked???) pillar of flame (plasma maybe???) shot upwards, slicing the heavens in two.
The blast is estimated to have had the power of roughly 1000 Hiroshimas.
770 square miles of forest were uprooted and laid flat like new mown hay, all pointing away from the single blast point.
A 5.6 “earthquake” ensued.
A giant pressure wave swept around the Earth, twice.
The pendulums of seismographs went haywire.
People were thrown to the ground.
Horses were thrown to the ground.
Buildings creaked and groaned.
The air vibrated.
The waters of rivers backed up against their current flow direction.
The driver of a train on the recently completed trans-Siberian railway stopped his engine in the steppe believing it had been derailed.
Farther away from the epicenter, subterranean rumblings were felt and heard, but without sharp earthquake jolts – more of a strange gentle swaying, to and fro.
The following nights were marked by fiery glows and brilliant skies.
From England, there was a spooky twilight emanating from the south-east.
Cricketers were enjoying matches at night.
People could read a newspaper after midnight.
Comet Biela was one menacing demon that astronomers started to track in 1772, and found that its periodicity was around 6.6 years. It was observed to split into two, but we lost track of it after 1852.
On October 8th, 1871, residents of Peshtigo Wisconsin, a town of 1700 poor unsuspecting souls, at around 7 or 8 pm, saw fireballs falling from the sky in a meteoric display. Then, in the distant horizon, a glow in the heavens appeared and started to grow, with a menacing rolling unceasing thundering sound, growing louder and louder. Before they could start to run for the river that runs through the town, an immense firestorm swept Peshtigonians off their feet, and everything just started moving horizontally.
Roofs on homes flew off horizontally as chimneys crashed to the ground.
Rail cars were flying up in a “tornado of fire”.
Trees were being uprooted.
The very air itself seemed to be on fire as far as the eye could see into space.
Even those that made it to the river found their hair and clothing combusting spontaneously when exposed to the air.
This made an impression on the survivors. Many were convinced that Armageddon was at hand.
Afterwards, they were astonished to find entire great Maple forests, uprooted and laid flat like “new-mown hay”.
At least 1200 souls perished in this near-instant hellfire from the sky, in Peshtigo alone.
“On that same sinister Sunday, the 8th of October, 1871, when Peshtigo’s volunteer firemen were facing a threat that neither a thousand nor a million men could have coped with, the men of more than two score cities, towns, and settlements in Michigan were facing the same threat, the same wind, and often with the same result.”
Burning an Empire
The story of American forest fires (1943)
Stuart H. Holbrook
On the very same day, at the very same hour, in Chicago:
“As I opened the front door, I saw the cinders falling like flakes of snow in a storm … … As I looked to the south, the sky over the city was a bright red, glowing like a furnace, and studded with innumerable sparks, ignited cinders and blazing embers, shining like myriads of red stars; but I could see no flames nor even smoke. Indeed, the absence of smoke from any point of view I had of the fire was a notable characteristic, which I attributed to the intensity of the heat … … It seemed as if I were alone in the city, that the last day had come, and the final conflagration of all things created was at hand …”
narrative of George M. Higginson within:
The History of Chicago from the Earliest Period to the Present Time
Volume 2, 1885, The A. T. Andreas Co. Publishers
“A fierce see-sawing hurricane set in. The fire appeared to tear up and instantly consume the firmer structures, while light and loose articles were hurled into the air like blazing torches. A large mass of fire, seemingly two feet in length and one foot in thickness, arose from a spot just north of Taylor Street, and went whirling through the air for more than three blocks, alighting on the cupola of the German Catholic Church on the northeast corner of Mather and Clinton streets. The entire building was almost instantaneously enveloped in flames. “
Account from Richard Riley
“… Every one has read, if he did not himself pass through the horrible experience, how the very air itself seemed full of fire, how the flames seemed to take giant leaps of many hundreds of yards, breaking out in points far away from the scenes of general disaster, and how huge balloons of flames swept through the sky, to descend and break like a burning [water] spout, licking up every vestige of human life and labor from open clearings to which many had fled as a haven of safety … … in the process devastating flames were kindled afresh in hundreds of places so far removed from the previous locality of the fire, that it seemed as if the havoc could only have been wrought by the torch of the destroying angel … “
Narrative of Elias Colbert
“From the various recitals of individuals presented, a general idea of the terrors excited by this event may be gained; also a conception of the progress and magnitude of the conflagration. No pen can do adequate justice to the subject. No limner could depict the scene… … There is nothing wherewith the fire can be compared. It stands alone, a monument in the annals of pyrology … … But when the reader looks intelligently at the enormous surface burned over, remembers the very brief time occupied in the destruction, and then reads the particular narrative or recital, he may arrive at some little comprehension of the catastrophe.”
“The incredible rapidity of the flames was noticeable here, as upon the South Side. In fact, the mind is scarcely able to comprehend what is implied by this term, and none, save those who beheld the scenes of agony, can realize what is meant.”
“During all this time, the fire was falling torrents – there was literally a rain of fire…”
“There was a sea of fire to the south and southwest, the wind blew a perfect gale…”
“I saw the sky as it were in flames over my head and the streets lighted as if by lurid sunlight … … What a scene – a sea of fire!”
“Here indeed commenced the total extermination of all that was combustible. Buildings of every description were swept away, leaving the ground upon which they had stood a field of absolute waste … “
“Some few incidents are inserted here to show how terrible was the fire. When it had reached the business center of the city, it ceased to be governed by any of the ordinary rules that are commonly attendant upon even great fires, as the terms are usually understood. In places, the heat could only be compared to that from the combustion of oxygen and hydrogen by means of a blow-pipe. In places it would strike great iron columns nearly two feet square, and for four or five feet, perhaps more, the iron would be all burned up. No residuum would be left.”
“Safes, if exposed to these jets of heat, were of no account whatever. George Smith, banker, told me that they had standing in a back office a large safe full of ledgers and other books. That safe and its contents were all burned. Not a vestige of it remained to mark where it stood … … Some of the freaks of the fire are scarcely credible. Very reliable gentlemen reported that they saw jets of flame dart across an entire block, and in an instant envelop the building it struck in a winding sheet of lurid flame.”
Statement from Ex-lieutenant-Governor Bross
“The fact that building stone was everywhere baked and blistered into mere chips, even where it was used only for sidewalk or foundations, attests to the fearful heat which prevailed everywhere. But in the interior of buildings the fervor was unprecedented; as witness the melting of the great Court-house bell, the burning up of many safes, so that they could be punctured with a single touch of the crowbar, and the fusion of metals generally.”
Chicago and the Great Conflagration (1871)
Elias Colbert and Everett Chamberlin
“In the stores of Messrs. Heath and Miligan … … the temperature was above 3000 degrees, as shown by the melting of white lead and other stores requiring that degree of heat to fuse them. How much hotter it became, there is no index to determine; but this is known: that large masses of iron, such as iron columns, and the framework of a large elevator, were literally burned up, so that no trace of them could be found.”
“Your readers may wonder what I mean by fire balloons, and I confess that I hardly know myself, and only use the term because it was so frequently used by others in conversation with me. All of the survivors with whom I conversed said that the whole sky seemed filled with dark, round masses of smoke, about the size of a large balloon, which traveled with fearful rapidity. These balloons would fall to the ground, burst, and send forth a most brilliant blaze of fire, which would instantly consume every thing in the neighbourhood. An eyewitness, who was in a pool of water not far off, told us about the balloon falling right down on the Lawrence family, and burning them up.”
“We now come to a farm that was occupied by Philip Weinhardt, wife, and five children, a real good, solid, substantial German Family. The first warning any of them had, was the low, rumbling noise heretofore described. The wife went to the door, found fire on every side of them, and believing the day of judgement was at hand, without an effort to save themselves, they all perished. This idea of final dissolution was entertained, not by the ignorant only, as the most intelligent thought that the noise they heard was the echo of Gabriel’s trumpet. Mr. Beebe, the Pesthigo Company’s Agent, as soon as he saw the fire, declared that the last hour had come, and, although repeatedly requested to save himself, refused to do so, and perished without an effort to get away.”
“The heat of the burning city was felt far away on the lake … … so hot was the wind over at Holland, Michigan, a hundred miles or more northeast of Chicago, that some parties there, on the afternoon of Monday, were obliged to go down behind a hedge, and let the scorching blasts pass over them. They were unable then to account for the heat, and greatly feared that the time had come when ‘the earth and all things therein would be burned up’. ”
The History of Chicago from the Earliest Period to the Present Time
Volume 2, 1885, The A. T. Andreas Co. Publishers
The parent comet that feeds the the Draconid meteor stream, is today called “21P”, or “Giacobini-Zinner”. In our orbit through the solar system, we pass through this stream, and threaten to encounter the comet every October, between October 6th and October 10th, peaking on October 8th. Some of the greatest meteoric displays in the 20th century came from the Draconids. They are called the Draconids, because they seem to radiate from the constellation Draco.
So, it seems like the great lakes area was the victim of the Draconid meteor stream, not just on October 8th 1871, but New Brunswick may also have fallen victim to the same comet/meteor-stream on October 7th 1825, in the Miramichi fire, which witnessed similar events.
It is possible that comet Biela and comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner are one and the same.
21P/Giacobini-Zinner was discovered soon after comet Biela was lost.
Let’s compare the two:
The “AU”s are “Astronomical Units”, which is the distance to the Sun from Earth.
The match is essentially perfect. The only real difference is the inclination. Perhaps in the early 1800’s they were not as sophisticated in determining the correct inclination? This is not all that important really - the correct name of the comet, but it does reveal just how hard it is to track space-rocks which can break up and change the nature of their threat to us with very little notice. It also reveals just how little we pay attention to and learn from natural disasters, with these great fires not only being nearly entirely forgotten, but also mis-understood. These days, we treat a meteor shower, like the Draconids, like entertainment. We learned nothing from October 8th 1871.
A small space rock, detonating with the power of a nuclear bomb, by smashing into our protective atmosphere, occurs roughly once every two weeks.
A space rock about the size of a house flies between Earth and moon, about once a day.
A space rock about the size of a football field flies between Earth and moon, about once a month.
The big ones make an ominous pass about once every couple years.
During the last 150 years of mass media, we have seen multiple reports of major space-rocks severely pummel Earth.
Surely we should expect that this has occurred with similar frequency when we didn’t have seismographs, cameras, newspapers, and billions of witnesses.
Surely we should expect that this will recur many more times to come.
Surely we should prepare for this, and foresee obstacles we need to adapt to, and overcome, and do it gracefully and in good time.
In order to do this, we need to understand the full nature of the true threats we face, and stop focusing all our attention on minor or insignificant threats, and much less on fabricated or otherwise baseless fears, like alien invasion, or artificial intelligence taking command of Earthly affairs.
For instance: comets are not dirty snowballs, they are stratified, cratered, heavy, dry, rocks, just like asteroids; and Jupiter’s gravity is not the only force that can cause comets to break apart or to change orbit:
· Comet Elenin broke up as a result of a coronal mass ejection. Only a faint dust cloud remained.
· Comet Holmes, in 2007, after moving away from the sun for 5 months, suddenly disintegrated and flared up to an extent where its coma was larger than the sun! That’s right! It was the largest object in the solar system! Spectacular, yet also ominous (if it were closer). 2 days earlier, a severely sharp spike in solar activity was recorded.
· Comet Schwassman-Wachmann-3 disintegrated, without the help of Jupiter.
· Comet Linear suffered the same fate as Elenin, breaking up into just a dust cloud.
· NASA’s Stardust mission, which sent a probe to comet Wild 2, capturing bits from the comet in Aerogel receptacles, captured 0 water molecules, and much much worse, it captured highly ordered crystalline minerals (rocks), which can only be produced under conditions found in the habitable zone (requiring high temperatures in some cases, or requiring the presence of liquid water, where liquid water requires pressure, like atmospheric pressure). The hypothetical Oort cloud, where they allege comets originate, cannot possibly have provided conditions even remotely conducive to the production of such minerals, like olivine, a common volcanic rock.
· Countless direct pictures and video, close-up to comets, have clearly shown that comets have rocky, dry, cratered surfaces. Not dirty snowballs. Dirty rocks! Fearsome, large, heavy, ominous, dirty, space-rocks!
· The alleged vent-holes, where water is allegedly expelled from alleged sub-surface pressure chambers allegedly heated by the sun, have not been observed. The observed "jets" that we see even emanate from the dark side of the comet (again, without vent-holes).
· What they observe in the coma, using spectroscopy, is not water. It is hydroxyl (OH). These are not the same. Hydroxyl can be produced by other chemical reactions.
Here is a selection of photos from the rocky surface of Mars, with boulders strewn all over the place, stratified rock formations, craters, mesas and peaks:
Oh, wait, whoops! These are pictures from comet 67P! My bad!
Comets are so easily confused with rocky, stratified features from the habitable zone! My mistake!
It is clear that we have yet to even begin to appreciate the complex nature of our environment – our polluted celestial environment.
It is a scientific pursuit ripe for discovery and begging for fresh insight.
Excessive cold can be just as deadly as excessive heat.
Excessive cold is the predominant state of affairs on the surface of Earth, as evidenced by ice core data, where deep ages of ice take up the majority of geological time (at least during the last few million years).
During the Great Frost of 1683–84, the worst frost recorded in England, the Thames river was completely frozen for two months, with the ice reaching a thickness of 11 inches in London. Solid ice was reported extending for miles off the coasts of the southern North Sea (England, France and the Low Countries), causing severe problems for shipping and preventing the use of many harbours. Near Manchester, the ground was frozen to 27 inches. In Somerset, the ground was frozen solid to more than 4 feet!
“The severe weather of the 1590’s marked the beginnings of the peak of the Little Ice Age, a regimen of climatic extremes that would last over two centuries. There were records of unusual heat and of record cold, like the winter of 1607, when savage frosts split the trunks of many great trees in England.
“A modern European transported to the height of the Little Ice Age would not find the climate very different, even if winters were sometimes colder than today and summers very warm on occasion too. There was never a monolithic deep-freeze, rather a climatic seesaw that swung constantly backwards and forwards, in volatile and sometimes disastrous shifts. There were arctic winters, blazing summers, serious droughts, torrential rain years, often bountiful harvests, and long periods of mild winters and warm summers. Cycles of excessive cold and unusual rainfall could last a decade, a few years, or just a single season. The pendulum of climate change rarely paused for more than a generation.
Climate change varied not only from year to year, but from place to place. The coldest decades in northern Europe did not coincide with those in, say, Russia, or the American West. For example, eastern North America had its coldest weather of the little ice age in the 1800’s, but the western United States was warmer than in the 1900’s.
In Asia, serious economic disruption, far more threatening than any contemporary disorders in Europe, occurred throughout much of the continent during the 1600’s. From the 1630’s, China’s Ming empire faced widespread drought. The government’s draconian response caused widespread revolt, and Manchu attacks from the north increased in intensity. By the 1640’s, even the fertile Yangtze River Valley of the south suffered from serious droughts, then catastrophic floods, epidemics and famine. Millions of people died from hunger and the internecine wars that resulted in the fall of the Ming dynasty to the Manchus in 1644. Hunger and malnutrition brought catastrophic epidemics that killed thousands of people throughout Japan in the early 1640’s. The same severe weather conditions affected the fertile rice lands of southern Korea, where, again, epidemics killed hundreds of thousands.
Only a few short cool cycles, like the two unusually cold decades between 1590 and 1610, appear to have been synchronous on the hemispheric and global scale.”
Sunspots are an indication of high solar activity (output of solar radiation, which reaches Earth). Solar activity drives our climate, and it affects nearly all human affairs and pursuits, directly or indirectly, especially in times when 4 out of 5 people are subsistence farmers, almost entirely dependent on crop yields, not just to make money, but just to be able to eat well, and survive the winters, and keep enough grain for seed for the next season.
During the worst period of 1672–1699, telescope observations revealed fewer than 50 sunspots for the whole period.
Note that the Great Frost (1683-4), is centered on the worst period of minimum sunspot observation (1672–1699), which is centered on a wider period of reduced sunspot observation (1645-1715), which is centered on a period of volatile and often icy conditions, spanning a couple hundred years (late 1500’s to early 1800’s), which saw the glaciers advance to levels not seen in 10,000 years!
“From 1687 to 1692, cold winters and cool summers led to a series of bad harvests. On April 24, 1692, a French chronicler complained of “very cold and unseasonable weather; scarce a leaf on the trees.” Alpine villagers lived on bread made from ground nutshells mixed with barley and oat flour. In France, cold summers delayed wine harvests, sometimes even into November. Widespread blight damaged many crops, bringing one of the worst famines in continental Europe since 1315 and turning France into what a horrified cleric, Archbishop Fenelon, called a “big, desolate hospital without provisions”. Finland lost perhaps as much as a third of its population to famine and disease in 1696-97, partly because of bad harvests but also because of the government’s lack of interest in relief measures.
On several occasions between 1695 and 1728, inhabitants of the Orkney Islands off northern Scotland were startled to see an Inuit in his kayak paddling off their coasts. On one memorable occasion, a kayaker came as far south as the River Don near Aberdeen.
The period between 1645 and 1715 was remarkable for the rarity of aurora borealis and aurora australis, which were reported far less frequently than either before or afterward. Between 1645 and 1708, not a single aurora was observed in London’s skies. When one appeared on March 15th 1716, none other than Astronomer Edmund Halley wrote a paper about it, for he had never seen one in all his years as a scientist – and he was sixty years old at the time. On the other side of the world, naked eye sightings of sunspots from China, Korea, and Japan between 28 BC and 1743 AD provide an average of six sightings per century, presumably coinciding with solar maxima. There were no observations, whatsoever, between 1639 and 1700, nor were any aurora reported.”
The variability of the sun’s output was not the only factor affecting climate change during the Little Ice Age:
A few volcanoes made matters much much worse by shading the dimming sun even more. For example, in 1600, a volcano in Peru hurled massive rocks and around 20 cubic kilometers of ashy debris high into the air, covering the surrounding 300,000 square kilometers with ash, descending for 10 days, some of it even making it to Greenland and Antarctica. The sun and moon were darkened for months.
The next summer, 1601 was the coldest since 1400, throughout the northern hemisphere. Summer sunlight was so dim in Iceland, there were no shadows. In central Europe, the sun and moon were “reddish, faint, and lacked brilliance”. Western North America lived through the coldest summer of the previous 400 years, with below-freezing temperatures. Scandinavia saw the coldest years of the previous 1600. Constant haze.
Russia was blindsided by a famine that cut its population by a third between 1601 and 1603.
Estonia’s population was reduced by half.
Volcanic events produced at least four more major cold episodes during the 1600’s (although none rivalling the insane 1600 global haze)
The identities of these eruptions remains unknown except for that of January 4, 1641, when Mount Parker on Mindanao in the Philippines erupted with a noise “like musketry”. Wrote an anonymous Spanish eyewitness: “By noon we saw a great darkness approaching from the south which gradually spread over the entire hemisphere…..By 1 pm we found ourselves in total night and at 2 pm in such profound darkness that we could not see our hands before our eyes”. A nearby Spanish flotilla lit lanterns at midday and frantically shovelled ash off its decks, fearing, in the darkness “the Judgement Day to be at hand”. The dust from the eruption affected temperatures worldwide.
Around the mid-1800’s, after this Little Ice Age - after hundreds of years of miserable unpredictable climate swings, generally in the cold direction, the sunspots kicked back into full swing again, and things finally started warming up, and the climate finally settled down to more steady and predictable patterns.
It had been 500 years since this comfortable stability has been seen, and, in the mid-1800’s, this resurgence of solar output ushered in a new age of discovery, growth, exploration, and prosperity.
Around the mid-1800’s, glaciers started melting again, finally stopping their threatening encroachment on poor alpine villagers, having recently grown to their greatest extent in the last 10,000 years.
Sea passages, formally clogged with ice, were being traversed again.
Thing is, the sun’s radiance and splendour can be a blessing, and it can also be a serious curse:
On September 1st, 1859, immediately after the Little Ice Age had wrapped up, and glaciers had started melting, before we really started burning coal and gas to a degree that could affect the climate in a significant way; sunspot activity was now going insane, with solar astronomer Richard Carrington being so impressed, he decided to make a drawing of it:
As Carrington was mesmerized by this insanely wild activity on the surface of the sun, as he stared through his telescope, a massive kidney-shaped ejection started flaring up, growing out from the giant spot on the sun, and then, poof! It disappeared.
18 hours later, our poor tiny Earth was fully engulfed in a dense storm of charged particles.
Telegraph lines were zapped.
Some telegraph operators could continue to send and receive messages despite having disconnected their power supplies.
Auroras were seen in the Caribbean.
Gold miners in the US Rockies woke up and started making breakfast, while being puzzled at still being so tired from the labours of the previous day.
You could read a book at night.
Those who happened to be out late on Thursday night had an opportunity of witnessing another magnificent display of the auroral lights. The phenomenon was very similar to the display on Sunday night, though at times the light was, if possible, more brilliant, and the prismatic hues more varied and gorgeous. The light appeared to cover the whole firmament, apparently like a luminous cloud, through which the stars of the larger magnitude indistinctly shone. The light was greater than that of the moon at its full, but had an indescribable softness and delicacy that seemed to envelop everything upon which it rested. Between 12 and 1 o'clock, when the display was at its full brilliancy, the quiet streets of the city resting under this strange light, presented a beautiful as well as singular appearance.
Australian gold miner C.F. Herbert:
I was gold-digging at Rokewood, about four miles from Rokewood township (Victoria). Myself and two mates looking out of the tent saw a great reflection in the southern heavens at about 7 o'clock p.m., and in about half an hour, a scene of almost unspeakable beauty presented itself, lights of every imaginable color were issuing from the southern heavens, one color fading away only to give place to another if possible more beautiful than the last, the streams mounting to the zenith, but always becoming a rich purple when reaching there, and always curling round, leaving a clear strip of sky, which may be described as four fingers held at arm's length. The northern side from the zenith was also illuminated with beautiful colors, always curling round at the zenith, but were considered to be merely a reproduction of the southern display, as all colors south and north always corresponded. It was a sight never to be forgotten, and was considered at the time to be the greatest aurora recorded... The rationalist and pantheist saw nature in her most exquisite robes, recognising, the divine immanence, immutable law, cause, and effect. The superstitious and the fanatical had dire forebodings, and thought it a foreshadowing of Armageddon and final dissolution.
This must have made an impression on many people.
Imagine how natural events like this could have made an impression on peoples long ago, all over the world!
As far back as the ice cores go, Earth has clearly never enjoyed a stable temperature!
As far as the ice core data can tell us, Earth has always oscillated by at least 2-4 degrees centigrade from whatever average there may exist over a few hundred or a couple thousand years. That’s a fact. And then there are the unexplained serious dips and spikes.
What this graph shows is ice-core concentrations of the heavier oxygen 18 versus the lighter oxygen 16 atoms, within water molecules. What happens is, during hot times, the heavier water, with the oxygen 18 atoms is more easily evaporated from the oceans, and so you get more of these heavier water molecules deposited on the glaciers. In colder times, the heavier atoms are not as easily evaporated, so you get a greater concentration of lighter water - with the lighter oxygen 16 atoms, accumulating on the glaciers instead.
Each vertical notch on the graph represents around 2 degrees of difference, centigrade.
The horizontal axis is the number of thousands of years before present.
The very right side of the graph is the start of the end of the last great ice age, but, as you can see, the Younger Dryas period interrupted what should have been a gradual warming up, out of the great ice age. Instead, something happened around 13,000 years ago that caused an enormous dip in temperatures, lasting over a 1000 years – which was hell on Earth, wiping out the majority of large animal species of North America, and reducing the numbers of surviving populations significantly. And then something else happened, at around 11,600 years ago, to induce a wildly sharp and lasting increase in temperatures, marking the true end of the last great ice age.
So, I guess, if humans are the only cause of climate change, I guess, at 11,600 years ago, we all started driving SUVs way too much, so that’s what was responsible for that roughly 8-degree C immediate temperature increase, with sea levels rising as a result, marking the end of the last ice age. Sure. That makes a ton of sense. I guess this finally proves that advanced human civilizations go way back in time!
Whenever one proposes some evidence to prove some seemingly outlandish theory, like the universe being infinite, or that single cells and plants have a mind of their own; one is repeatedly told that “correlation does not equal causation”. True. It does not. Just because you can match two things together with some line of evidence, this does not necessarily prove that one causes the other. For example: if temperatures get cold, hot soup sales records reveal a statistically significant boost. O.K. But, we cannot absolutely declare that Jimbob, on a particular January morning, ordered a soup solely because it was cold out. This line of argument can get really silly in some cases, but, technically, it is correct. The cold, logically, cannot be said to have caused Jimbob to order a soup. It is a valid check - a useful screen on assumptions, even though it gets abused as a sceptic’s go-to weapon of easy dismissal of alternative theories.
The temperature swings in the ice cores are indeed correlated, as Al Gore’s scissor-lift graph shows, with the CO2 levels showing the same dips and spikes as the oxygen-isotope dips and spikes (which indicates the temperature at the time). So, yes, there is a correlation between CO2 and temperature in the ice cores.
Now, why are all those who claim that humans alone drive climate, exempt from the scrutiny of “correlation does not equal causation”?
From even a quick cursory glance at Al Gore’s scissor-lift graph of CO2 levels versus temperature levels, from ice cores, it is ice-crystal-clear, and blatantly obvious, that CO2 levels follow changes in temperature, and not the other way around. In other words:
First, the temperature changes;
Then, the atmospheric CO2 changes:
Again, time, on this chart, goes from right to left, starting at 800,000 years ago.
The red line is temperature, the blue and purple are CO2.
It is well-known today, that when the oceans warm up, they off-gas CO2; and when they cool down, they absorb CO2. With the oceans having 38,000,000,000 tons of carbon dioxide stored within them, and being able to change temperature relatively quickly, and with the oceans covering most of the surface of our planet; it is almost certainly the primary mechanism that explains the correlation between CO2 and temperature.
“During the whole summer of 1635, no less than during that of 1636, signs of this sort were seen: burning stars running together in the heavens in great numbers and falling to the earth.”
“From March to August, 1636, not one drop of rain. This Numigen plague raged most at new and full moon. It was presaged by great jostling and falling of fiery Stars south or west, many fewer birds than ordinary.”
In spring of 1490, in the Ch'ing-yang district of China:
"Stones fell like rain in the Ch’ing-yang district. The larger ones were about 1.5 kg, and the smaller ones were about 1 kg. Numerous stones rained in Ch'ing-yang (city). Their sizes were all different. The larger ones were like goose's eggs and the smaller ones were like water-chestnuts. More than 10,000 people were struck dead. All of the people in the city fled to other places."
“An eclipse of the sun happened on the second of the Calends of October. [Sept. 30.] Stars like fire were also seen falling from heaven in many parts of Italy.”
“Many stars of a fiery appearance fell down. At this time pestilence invaded nearly the whole of Italy.”
October 22nd “In the year 1366, on the day after the festival of the eleven thousand virgins, from midnight until daylight, stars were seen falling in streams from heaven, and in such multitudes that no man could count them.”
“During the 1200’s, Greenland and Iceland experienced increasing cold. Sea ice spread southward around Greenland and in the northern-most Atlantic, creating difficulties for Norse ships sailing from Iceland as early as 1203. Unusual cold brought early frosts and crop failures to Poland and the Russian plains in 1215, when famine caused people to sell their children and eat pine bark. During the 1200’s, some Alpine glaciers advanced for the first time in centuries, destroying irrigation channels in high mountain valleys and overturning larch forests.
While colder temperatures afflicted the north, Europe as a whole benefited from the change (during the 1200’s). The downturn in temperatures in the Arctic cause a persistent trough of low pressure over Greenland and enduring ridges of high pressure over north-western Europe. A period of unusually warm, mostly dry summers between 1284 and 1311, in which May frosts were virtually unknown, encouraged many farmers to experiment with vineyards in England. After the start of the 1300’s however, the weather turned unpredictable:
THE GREAT FAMINE
“The deluge began in 1315, seven weeks after Easter. “During this season (spring 1315) it rained most marvellously and for so long”, wrote a contemporary observer, Jean Desnouelles. Across northern Europe, sheets of rain spread in waves over the sodden countryside, dripping from thatched eaves, flowing in endless rivulets down muddy country lanes. Wrote chronicler Bernado Guidonis: “Exceedingly great rains descended from the heavens, and they made huge and deep mud-pools on the land.” Freshly plowed fields turned into shallow lakes. City streets and narrow alleys became jostling, slippery quagmires. June passed, then July with little break in the weather. Only occasionally did a watery sun break through the clouds, before the rain started again. “Throughout nearly all of May, July and August, the rains did not cease.” complained one writer. An unseasonably cold August became an equally chilly September. Such corn and oats as survived were beaten down to the ground, heavy with moisture, the ears still soft and unripened. Hay lay flat in the fields. Oxen stood knee deep in thick mud under sheltering trees, their heads turned away from the rain. Dykes were washed away, royal manors inundated. In central Europe, floods swept away entire villages, drowning hundreds at a time. Deep erosion gullies tore through hillside fields where shallow clay soils could not absorb the endless water. Harvests had been less than usual in previous years, causing prices to rise, but that of 1315 was a disaster. The author of the Chronicle of Malmesbury wondered, like many others, if divine vengeance had come upon the land: “Therefore is the anger of the Lord kindled against his people, and he hath stretched forth his hand against them, and hath smitten them.”
Europe was a continent of constant turmoil and minor wars, of endless killings, raids, and military expeditions. Many conflicts stemmed from succession disputes and personal rivalries, from sheer greed and reckless ambition. The wars continued whatever the weather, in blazing sunshine, or torrential rain, armies feeding off villages, leaving empty granaries and despoiled crops in their train. War merely increased the suffering of the peasants, who lived close enough to the edge as it was. But the rains of 1315 stopped military campaigning in its tracks.
“And what a wonder! Some knights who were sitting on a magnificently outfitted horse gave the horse and their weapons away for cheap wine; and they did so because they were so terribly hungry.”
The catastrophic rains affected an enormous area of northern Europe, from Ireland to Germany and north into Scandinavia. Incessant rain drenched farmlands long cleared of woods or reclaimed from marsh by countless small villages. The farmers had plowed heavy soils with long furrows, creating fields that absorbed many millimeters of rain without serious drainage problems. Now they became muddy wildernesses, the crops flattened where they grew. Clayey sub-soils became so waterlogged in many areas that the fertility of the topsoil was reduced drastically for years afterward.
(previous to the rains of 1315+), as rural populations grew during the 1200’s, many communities had moved onto lighter, often sandy soils, more marginal farming land that was incapable of absorbing sustained rainfall. Deep erosion gullies channelled running water through ravaged fields, leaving little more than patches of cultivable land. In parts of southern Yorkshire in northern England, thousands of acres of arable land lost their thin topsoil to deep gullies, leaving the underlying rock exposed. As much as half the arable land vanished in some places. Inevitably, crop yields plummeted. Such grain as could be harvested was soft and had to be dried before it could be ground into flour. The cold weather and torrential rains of later summer 1315 prevented thousands of hectares of cereals from ripening fully. Fall plantings of wheat and rye failed completely. Hay could not be cured properly.
Hunger began within months. “There began a dearness of wheat….From day to day the price increased,” lamented a chronicler in Flanders. By Christmas 1315, many communities throughout north-western Europe were already desperate.
Few people understood how extensive the famine was until pilgrims, traders, and government messengers brought tales of similar misfortune from all parts. “The whole world was troubled.” wrote a chronicler at Salzburg, which lay at the southern margins of the affected region. King Edward II of England attempted to impose price controls on livestock, but without success. After the hunger grew worse, he tried again, placing restrictions on the manufacture of ale and other products made from grain. The king urged his bishops to exhort hoarders to offer their surplus grain for sale “with efficacious words” and also offered incentives for the importation of grain. At a time when no one had enough to eat, none of these measures worked.
The hunger was made worse by the previous century’s population growth. In the late 1000’s, England’s population of about 1.4 million had risen to 5 million by the beginning of the 1300’s. France’s inhabitants (that is, that part of Europe now lying within the country’s modern boundaries) increased from about 6.2 million in the late 1000’s, to about 17.6 million or even higher. By 1300, with the help of cereal cultivation at unprecedented altitudes and latitudes, Norway supported half a million people. Yet economic growth had not kept pace with population. There was already some sluggishness in local economies by 1250, and very slow growth everywhere after 1285. With growing rural and urban populations, high transportation costs, and very limited communication networks, the gap between production and demand was gradually widening throughout northern Europe. Many towns and cities, especially those away from the coast or major waterways, were very vulnerable to food shortages.
In the countryside, many rural communities survived at near-subsistence levels, with only enough grain to get through one bad harvest and plant for the next year. Even in good years, small farmers endured the constant specter of winter famine. All it took was a breakdown in supply lines caused by iced-in-shipping, bridges damaged by floods, an epidemic of cattle disease that decimated breeding stock and draught animals, or too much or too little rainfall, and people went hungry.
Most close-knit farming communities endured the shortages of 1315 and hoped for a better harvest the following year. Then the spring rains in 1316 prevented proper sowing of oats, barley and spelt. The harvest failed again and the rains continued. Complained a Salzburg chronicler of 1316: “There was such an inundation of waters that it seemed as though it was THE FLOOD.” Intense gales battered Channel and North Sea. Storm-force winds piled huge sand dunes over a flourishing port at Kenfig near Port Talbot in south Wales, causing its abandonment. Villages throughout northern Europe paid the price for two centuries of extensive land clearance. Flocks and herds withered, crops failed, prices rose, and people contemplated the wrath of God. The agony was slow: famine weakens rural populations and makes them vulnerable to disease, which follows almost inevitably in its train. The prolonged disaster is familiar from modern-day famines in Africa and India. People first turned to relatives and neighbours, invoking the ties of kin and community that had bound them for generations. Then many families abandoned their land, seeking charity from relatives or aimlessly wandering the countryside in search of food and relief. Rural beggars roamed from village to village and town to town, telling (often false) stories of entire communities abandoned or of deserted meadows and hillsides.
By the end of 1316, many peasants and labourers were reduced to penury. Paupers ate dead bodies of diseased cattle and scavenged growing grasses in fields. Villagers in northern France are said to have eaten cats, dogs and dung of pigeons. In the English countryside, peasants lived off foods that they would not normally consume, many of them of dubious nutritional value. They were weakened by diarrhea and dehydration, became more susceptible to diseases of all kinds, were overcome by lethargy, and did little work. The newborn and the aged died fastest.
Community after community despaired and slowly dissolved. Thousands of acres of farmland were abandoned due to a shortage of seed corn and draught oxen, and to falling village populations. Huge areas of the Low Countries, inundated by the sea after major storms and prolonged rains, were so difficult to reclaim that major landowners could hardly persuade farmers to resettle their flooded lands. Across the North Sea, in the Bilsdale area of northeast Yorkshire, homesteaders in the late 1200’s had cleared hundreds of acres of higher ground for new villages. A couple of generations later, knots of hamlets, each with its own carpenters, foresters, and tanners, flourished on the newly cleared land. But climatic and economic deterioration, the 1316 famine, disease, the Scottish raids caused all of them to be abandoned by the 1330’s. The hamlets became tiny single-family holdings, and the communities dispersed. Throughout northern Europe, small farming communities on marginal land were abandoned, or shrunk until their holdings were confined to the most fertile and least flood-prone lands.
The cold and wet conditions brought profound hardship to homesteads almost everywhere. Many free landowners, forced to sell or mortgage their farms, were reduced to the basest poverty. Thousands of farmers became laborers, especially in areas around London and other large cities, where there was much demand for food and such tasks as plowing were made more laborious by the wet, clogged soils. Real estate records and rent lists reveal a dramatic increase in land transactions, as richer landowners exploited their poorer neighbours and families deeded field to their children to enable them to survive. Compared with 1315, for example, the manor of Hindolveston in Norfolk witnessed a 160 percent increase in surrenders of property by tenants in 1316, and a 70 percent overage in 1317. In most cases, a handful of rich farmers bought out their poorer colleagues. One Adam Carpenter acquired five parcels of land in 1315 alone. By the time the rush of transactions abated, he had acquired forty-seven.
The year 1316 was the worst for cereal crops throughout the entire Middle Ages. In many places, the crops simply did not ripen. Where wheat could be harvested, the plants were stunted, the yields pitiful.
Downey mildew attacked French grapes, so vines never reached their proper maturity and “there was a great failure of wine in the whole kingdom of France.” Chroniclers complained of shortages and harsh taste. The vineyards of Neustadt in Germany were hard hit: 1316, “a trifling quantity of wine”; 1317, “very little wine.” That of 1319 was “sour,” while the cold in 1323 was so extreme that the root stocks died. Not until 1328, six years after the famine ended, was there “very much and exceptionally good wine.”
The weather attacked not only crops but animals. Just feeding them in winter became a serious headache. The fields were so damp that, even if hay could be mowed, the crops could not dry in the open. Stored in a barn, uncured hay rots, builds up heat and methane gas, and can burst into flames unless turned regularly. What drying ovens and kilns were available were used to dry unripened grain for human consumption. The worst for animals came later in the famine years. The bitterly cold winter of 1317/1318 used up the already depleted fodder stocks. When these ran out, farmers had to turn their animals out to forage for themselves in short-lived warmer spells. Thousands of head starved or froze to death in their pastures. Sheep suffered especially badly from the cold, for prolonged snow and frost early in the year make lambing a risky proposition. The raw summer brought virulent rinderpest, which attacked cattle with diarrhea, dehydration, and intestinal failure. Thousands of putrefying carcasses were burnt or buried in mass graves. A parasitic worm infection called liver fluke reduced sheep and goat flocks by as much as 70 percent in some places.
“The great dying of beasts” continued into the early 1320’s, bringing severe shortages not only of livestock but of manure for the fields. The impact was felt immediately. Oxen and horses lay at the heart of the rural economy, the former used extensively for plowing. Teams of oxen, often owned jointly by several families, plowed heavier soils for entire communities and were heavily used by medieval manors. Inevitably, the stock shortage translated into fewer hectares plowed, abandoned fields, and lower crop yields. Only pigs were relatively unaffected. Fast-breeding swine were abundant until the shortfall in bread, beef and mutton caused people to increase the amount of pork in their diet and herds were decimated.
In the towns, the urban poor ate less bread. Wrote a Flemish observer in 1316: “The people were in such great need that it cannot be expressed. For the cries that were heard from the poor would move a stone, as they lay in the street with woe and great complain, swollen with hunger.” In Flanders, bread was no longer made from wheat, but from anything that was available. Sixteen Parisian bakers were caught putting hog dung and wine dregs in their loaves. They were placed on punishment wheels in public squares and forced to hold fragments of the rotten bread in their hands. People went days without eating and assuaged hunger pangs by eating leaves, roots, and the occasional fish taken from a stream. Even King Edward II of England had trouble finding bread for his court. Famine was often more severe in cities and towns than in the countryside, with widespread diarrhea and lethargy resulting from “strange diets”. The hungry suffered greatly from the intense winter cold. There had not been so many deaths from disease or such instability in towns within living memory. Robbery with assault became commonplace as thieves stole anything that could be eaten or sold for food, be it hay, timber, or church roof lead. Piracy flourished as desperate locals preyed on fishing boats and grain vessels.
Beggars flocked to the cities from the countryside. In the Low Countries, they gathered in large groups, scavenged the middens that lay outside town walls or “grazed like cattle” in the fields. Bodies littered cultivated land and were buried in mass graves. The mendicants spread disease. In the town of Tournai in modern-day Belgium, 1316 was “the year of the mortality”. Gilles de Muisit, abbot of Saint-Martin de Tournai, wrote: “men and women from among the powerful, the middling, and the lowly, old and young, rich and poor, perished daily in such numbers that the air was fetid with the stench”. Huge communal cemeteries entombed the previously segregated dead, rich and poor alike. In Louvain, a wagon from the hospital “loaded with six or eight corpses twice or thrice a day continuously carried pitiable little bodies to the new cemetery outside the town”. Between 5 and 10 percent of Flanders’s urban population perished in the Great Famine.
By 1317, as the rains continued through another wet summer, people everywhere despaired. The church performed complex rogation ceremonies to pray for divine intervention. Guilds and religious orders in Paris processed barefoot through the streets. In the dioceses of Chartres and Rouen, chronicler Guillaume de Nangis saw “a large number of both sexes, not only from nearby places but from places as much as five leagues away, barefooted, and many even, excepting the women, in a completely nude condition, with their priests, coming together in procession at the church of the holy martyr, and they devoutly carried bodies of the saints and other relics to be adored”. After generations of generally good harvests and settled weather, they believed divine retribution was at hand for a Europe divided by wars. Rich and poor alike endured the punishment of God.
Northern Europe never again endured a hunger as catastrophic as that of 1315. Later famines, however local, served as reminders of the great fragility of society. Not until the late 1600’s in England, and more than a century later in France, did new agricultural methods and crops, much improved commercial infrastructures, and large-scale food imports significantly reduce the threat of famine.”
A weakened Europe was now operating under compromised social and economic conditions, ravaged top-soils, more unpredictable weather, while still employing agricultural methods which provide, even under the best climate conditions and with a healthy soil structure, only marginal returns and meagre stores of food. Scarcity of food compromises the body’s ability to fight disease. Without this downturn in the climate, it is entirely possible that the black death of 1347-1351 would never have happened. The plague is still alive and well in rodents and fleas today. If it were not for our clean streets, and very well-stocked grocery stores, granted by a healthy sun above us, this ever-present threat would almost certainly resurface.
July 26. “In this year, on the 7th of the Kalends of August, the night was most serene and the air exceedingly pure, so that the milky way was as manifest as in the clearest winter night, although the moon was in her eighth day. And to our surprise, stars were seen falling from heaven, swiftly darting on all sides. Most remarkably, thirty or forty were seen to shoot or fall at the same instant, so that two or three would fly together in the same track. Of course, if these had been real stars, (which no man of sense supposes) not one would have been left in the sky. It belongs to the astrologers to interpret this portentous appearance; but to all the beholders it was a most stupendous and wonderful spectacle.”
“In the year 599, on the night preceding Sunday the last day of the month Moharrem, [October 19, A. D. 1202,] the stars rushed across the heavens from east to west, and glided to the right and left, like grasshoppers in a field. This continued until dawn. The inhabitants cried out with terror, and fervently implored the mercy of the Most High. A similar occurrence happened in the year of the holy mission of the Prophet, [A. D. 611,] as well as in the year 241, [A. D. 855.]
“During this period (around 1202), the region suffered various catastrophic afflictions. The Yemen was ravaged by dust storms, heralded at Mecca by extraordinary celestical phenomena, while Taif was struck by virulent plague.”
Sufis of Andalusia
The Ruh al-quds and al-Durrat al-fakhirah of Ibn ‘Arabi
Translated by R.W.J. Austin
School of Oriental Studies, University of Durham
Beshara publications 2002
Footnote = “Futuhat, II, p. 450”
“At the beginning of the year [596 of the Hegira, commencing Oct. 22, 1199], the stars were seen coursing through the heavens, and afterward the water was very low. During the same year the sovereign of Egypt was dethroned by his uncle Melic-aladel”
Relation de l'Egypte
Arab doctor in Bagdad
Translated and enriched with historical notes and critiques by:
M. Silvestre De Sacy
Paris, 1810, 4to. book 2, chap. 2, p. 340.
First quoted in part by M. Fraehn, (sup.)
The passages occur at pp. 117 and 118 of the Tubingen edi tion of 1789.
April 4 “In the year of our Lord 1122, on the day before the nones of April, at the fourth watch of the night, while the brethren were chanting the Synaxis nocturnalis, innumerable stars were seen falling, and as it were raining down, throughout the world.”
“On the twelfth of February, at Bari, a town in Italy, were seen by day several stars in the sky, sometimes apparently running together, and sometimes apparently falling to the earth.”
“A comet was visible in February, from 3 o'clock to 9 for twenty five days at the same hour. In Judea this comet was seen fifty days decreasing. Shortly after the stars seemed to rain down from heaven.”
“During many nights stars were seen to rain down at intervals, but so thick and fast, that one would have said they were flakes from the celestial orbs.”
April 4 “This year Easter was on the 8th of the Kalends of April. And, after Easter, on the festival of St. Ambrose, that is on the 2d of the Nones [4th of April], over almost all this land and for nearly the whole of the night, stars were seen falling from heaven in manifold ways, not one or two at a time, but so thickly that no man could count them.”
“At this period, so many stars fell from heaven that they could not be counted. In France the inhabitants were amazed to see one of them of great size, fall to the earth, and they poured water on the spot, when, to their exceeding astonishment, smoke issued from the ground with a hissing noise.”
“The year 1094 was very remarkable for the number and fashion of gliding stars, which seemed to dash together in manner of a conflict.”
“M. Muncke states that in the year 1090, according to the chronicles of that period, shooting stars appeared in considerable numbers, during several consecutive nights.”
In the Comptes Rendus of the French Academy of Sciences, (1837, I, 532,) it is stated that M. de Paravey had found in an ancient history of Anjou, an account of a remarkable fall of shooting stars which happened A. D. 1060. The date of the month was not mentioned in the history.
“In the year 420, in the month Radjab, [beginning July 16, A. D. 1029], fell many stars with great noise and very vivid light.”
Soyuti, Hist. Cair. fol. 338.
First quoted by Von Hammer
Comptes Rend. 1837, I, p. 293.
Cited also by M. Fraehn.
“In the year 323 [Hegira], several violent shocks of an earthquake were felt in Egypt, the third of Dhu’l- kaada: [Oct. 5, A. D. 935] about the same time, many of those meteors called falling stars, of a very remarkable kind, likewise appeared in Egypt.”
Modern Part of the Universal History
8vo. Lond. Vol. 2. 1780. p. 333. (Hist. of the Arabs.)
931 or 934
“In the same year appeared signs in the heavens among the stars, which appeared some falling and others blazing like torches, on the fourteenth day of October, the second day of the moon.”
Notes found on a Calendar; and printed at the end of Chronicom Cavense
Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptores
26 tom. fol. Mediol. 1723, etc. t. vii, p. 961.
912 or 913.
“I will here add what I have seen in a commentator on the Astronomical Aphorisms of Ptolemy, the last of which begins thus:
‘Shooting stars indicate dryness of the air; if they all go towards the same quarter of the heavens, they foreshow winds which will blow from that quarter, but if they scatter in all parts of the heavens they indicate the drying up of the water, disturbances in the atmosphere, and the incursions of armies moving in various directions… … In the year 300 [beginning Aug. 17, A. D. 912] the same phenomena were seen in all parts of the sky; the flow of the Nile was bad, and there were troubles and agitations in the country.’
These are doubtless very strong signs, but they are common to all regions; and not peculiar to Egypt.”
Same source as the next entry:
“I remember that in the year 290 [of the Hegira, beginning Dec. 4, A. D. 902] there were seen in Egypt burning meteors which scattered themselves through the sky and filled the whole expanse; they caused great terror and increased continually. A short time after, a great dearth of water was felt in this country: the Nile rose only thirteen cubits, and violent disturbances arose which caused the ruin of the dynasty of the Toulounis in Egypt.
Relation de l'Egypte
Arab doctor in Bagdad
Translated and enriched with historical notes and critiques by:
M. Silvestre De Sacy
Paris, 1810, 4to. book 2, chap. 2, p. 340.
First quoted in part by M. Fraehn, (sup.)
The passages occur at pp. 117 and 118 of the Tubingen edition of 1789.
“In the month Djolkaada of the year 289, (of the Hegira,) died king Ibrahim ben Ahmet, and during the same night were seen great numbers of stars, which moved, as if they had been darted through the atmosphere, from a culminating point, and rushed down on the right and left, like rain. On account of this phenomenon, this year was called the year of stars.”
Conde: Hist. de la Domination des Maures en Espagne, I, 397
quoted by M. Fraehn, (as above,) who states that the date is the 24th or 25th October, A. D. 902.
First quoted in part by Von Hammer
Comptes Rend. Acad. Sci., 1837, I, 293.
“The whole hemisphere was filled with those meteors called falling stars, the ninth of Dhu’lhajja, (288th year of the Hegira,) [A. D. 901, November 25th , from midnight till morning, to the great surprise of the beholders, in Egypt.”
Modern Part of the Universal History
8vo. Vol. 2, p. 281. Lond. 1780. (Hist. of the Arabs.)
November 14th “In the year 286 (of the Hegira,) there was an earthquake in Egypt, on Wednesday, the 7th of the month Djolkaada, from midnight until morning, and the stars called Schuhub, (luminous meteors,) were in extraordinary commotion, going from east to west, and from north to south, in such a manner that no mortal could look at the heavens.”
Elmacini Histor. Saracen., Arab. et Lat., op. Erpenii, p. 181
quoted by M. Fraehn, L'Institut, No. 252, p. 350
October 17. “This year there was a fall of stars during the night preceding the first day of the month Djomadi II, (Hegira 241,) which continued from the beginning of the night until dawn. At the same period earthquakes were felt in all parts of the world.”
Cod. 521. Acad. Sci. fol. 51
cited by M. Fraehn, in a communication to the Imp. Acad. Sci. of St. Petersburgh
Dec. 1, 1837;
quoted in L’Institut, Paris, No. 252, p. 350. Oct. 25, 1838.
“An earthquake at Aix a few days before easter, and a violent hurricane. Another comet in Aries. And for several days together, very many little twinkling fires like stars, ran up and down in the air; great tempests of wind followed.”
General Chronological History of Air, Weather, Seasons, Meteors
Dr. Thomas Short
Vol. I, p. 86.
In the Saxon Chronicle, under date of A. D. 793, it is stated that fiery dragons [a common term for very brilliant meteoric fire-balls], were seen flying through the air.
“In the second year of his reign, [49th emperor of Japan, Koonin] there happened a storm of thunder and lightning dreadful beyond expression. It rained fire from Heaven, like stars, and the air was filled with a frightful noise.”
“On Saturday, the fourth day of January, stars were seen falling as it were from heaven.”
also known as Dionysius of Tel Mahre
Patriarch of Antioch, and head of the Syriac Orthodox Church from 818 until his death in 845.
Giuseppe Simone Assemani
“In the month of March, stars were seen falling from heaven, so that all the beholders imagined that the end of the world had come. There was also a great drought, and the fountains were dried up.”
Stephanis Chronographia : Hist. Byz. Scr. Corp. tom. 6, p. 291
See also Hist. Miscella, lib. 22, Muratori: Rer. Ital. Scr. tom. 1, p. 159
Calvisii Opus Chronol. fol. 1685, p. 634.
This is the shower referred to A. D. 763, in Ernst Chaldni's Feuer Meteore
“At that time happened a fearful sight and a strange portent resulting from an appearance in the sky. It began about candle-lighting and was visible during the whole night, causing surprise and great fear in all the beholders. For it seemed to them as though all the stars left their appointed places in the heavens, and descended towards the earth. But when they came near the ground, they were one and all suddenly dissipated without doing any damage whatever. Many assert that this astonishing sight was witnessed throughout the whole world.”
Saint Nikephoros I
Writer and Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople
744 or 747
“And the stars came forth shooting exceedingly.”
“In the 8th moon, on the day Ou-Chin [September 4?] there appeared many hundreds of shooting stars scattering themselves on all sides.”
“There was a great running of stars from evening until morning, so that everyone was greatly terrified, and exclaimed: “the stars are falling.’”
“Appeared a Comet for three Weeks. “
General Chronological History of Air, Weather, Seasons, Meteors
Dr. Thomas Short
Vol. I, page 64
“There happened a great chasing of stars from evening until morning, so that everyone was amazed, and cried out: ‘The stars are falling’! We never knew anything like it!”
Theophanes the Confessor
Byzantine chronicler (~759 – ~818))
“There was a great running of stars, so that all were astonished, and exclaimed: “See the stars are falling! We don’t know what is to happen.”
Byzantine historian living in the 1000’s
This is the shower referred to A. D. 533, in Ernst Chaldni's Feuer Meteore
“There was a sore famine in Italy.”
General Chronological History of Air, Weather, Seasons, Meteors
Dr. Thomas Short
Vol. I, page 64
“Was an earthquake at Pompeiopolis, which swallowed multitudes of people. Blood rained from the clouds, a grievous mortality followed.”
General Chronological History of Air, Weather, Seasons, Meteors
Dr. Thomas Short
Vol. I, page 64
In February of 535, Chinese folks heard a loud bang coming from the south-west. This points in the direction of Indonesia’s string of volcanoes, 3000 miles away.
In a vaguely-dated passage from the Indonesian Book of the Kings, put together in the 1850’s, but based on ancient sources; some time during the 1st millennium:
“A mighty thunder, which was answered by a furious shaking of the earth. Pitch darkness, thunder and lightning, and then came forth a furious gale, together with a hard rain. A deadly storm darkened the entire world. In no time, there came a great flood. When the water subsided, it could be seen that the island of Java had been split in two, thus creating the island of Sumatra.”
In the Nanxi ancient chronicles, from southern China:
“Yellow dust rained down like snow. It could be scooped up in handfuls.”
The years between 535 and 542 saw the most severe episode of cooling in the last 2000 years. The cooling and its impacts was (at least initially) global, and its aftereffects shaped how the modern world developed. It brought down the last vestige of the Roman empire. It set the stage for the popularization of the Qur’an and Islamic civilization to flourish for hundreds of years thereafter.
Tree rings from Ireland, Sweden, Finland, California and Chile show that tree growth virtually stopped cold in its tracks starting around 535, and after barely recovering, dropped sharply again in 542. It was so severe, that tree-cells which are usually made during winter months, were in fact being made through summer as well – as if it was frosty all summer.
Snow fell in China. In August.
The Gaelic Irish Annals record “a failure of bread” between 536 and 539.
Peru suffered a drought.
A “dense dry fog” was reported in Europe, the Middle-East and China.
In normally warm Mesopotamia, the winter was a “severe one, so much so that from the large and unusual quantity of snow, the birds perished”, says the chronicle written by Zacharias of Mytilene.
Syrian bishop John of Ephesus, noted strange disturbances in the atmosphere, between 535-536:
“There was a sign from the sun, the likes of which had never been seen or reported before. The sun became dark, and the darkness lasted for 18 months. Each day, it shone for about 4 hours, but this light was only a feeble shadow. Everyone declared that the sun would never recover its full brilliance again.”
“The fruits did not ripen, and the wine tasted like sour grapes.”
Roman statesman Flavius Cassiodorus:
“The sun seems to have lost its usual light, and is bluish in color. We marvel to see no shadows of our bodies at noon, to feel the mighty vigour of the sun’s heat wasted into feebleness, and the phenomena which accompany a transitory eclipse prolonged through almost a whole year. The moon too, even when its orb is full, is empty of its natural splendour.”
“We have had a spring without mildness, and a summer without heat. The months which should have seen our crops mature, were chilled by north winds. Rain is denied, and the reaper fears new frosts.”
The Byzantine historian Procopius, in the year 536, in his report on the wars with the Vandals:
"During this year, a most dreadful portent took place. For the sun gave forth its light without brightness, like the moon, during the whole year, and it seemed exceedingly like the sun during an eclipse, for the beams it shed were not clear, nor such as it is accustomed to shed.”
Zacharias of Mytilene:
“The sun began to be darkened by day, and the moon by night.”
Roman official and academic John the Lydian:
“The sun became dim for nearly the whole year.”
“The fruits were killed at an unseasonal time.”
In the Bei Shi ancient chronicles, from northern China, in an entry for April/early-May 535:
“Because of drought, there was an imperial edict, which ordered that in the capital (Chang’ An), and in all the provinces, commanderies and districts, one should bury the corpses.”
By the fifth month, the situation had deteriorated to such an extent, that in the capital itself, the government was forced to provide water for the population at the city gates.
Soon the drought became so intense that hundreds of thousands of square miles of normally fertile or semi-fertile land became totally arid. The evidence suggests that huge dust storms began to rage.
As the drought worsened in 536, the Bei Shi says, in the central Chinese province of Xi’an, seven or eight out of every ten people died. Survivors were forced to eat the corpses of the dead.
In early 537, in nine provinces in north China, the drought continued but was increasingly interrupted by hail. Then finally, in 538, the drought ended, but the climatological chaos continued. There were now huge floods. In the summer of that year, the toads and frogs were said to be “croaking from the trees”, so torrential was the rain. The instability continued into the 540’s, with major droughts in 544, 548, 549, and 550.
In the Nihon Shoki, the ancient chronicle of Japan, in 540, the Japanese Great King lamented:
“Food is the basis of the empire. Yellow gold and ten thousand strings of cash cannot cure hunger. What avails a thousand boxes of pearls to him who is starving of cold.”
“A great comet appeared. Fiery battles, with abundance of blood, were seen in the air, followed by great inundations in France, from excessive rains; the Tyber overflowing made terrible slaughter. On the 12th of the Calends of July, the Sun was so eclipsed, that the stars were seen.”
General Chronological History of Air, Weather, Seasons, Meteors
Dr. Thomas Short
Vol. I, page 65
The setting of the legends of King Arthur is that his kingdom was reduced to a wasteland. The legends say that he died in 539 or 542. The legends tell of terrible “blows” that rain down from the sky, onto Arthur’s people. Although fictional, the tale may have been inspired by the events of 535+
“As he rode thus through the land, he found trees down and grain destroyed and all things laid waste, as if lightning had struck in each place, and unquestionably it had struck in many places, though not everywhere. He found half the people in the villages dead, both bourgeois and knights, and he found labourers dead in the fields. What can I tell you? He found the kingdom of Listinois so totally destroyed that it was later called by everyone the Kingdom of Waste Land and the Kingdom of Strange Land, because everywhere the land had become so strange and wasted.”
Ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica show evidence of substantial sulphate deposits in around 533–534 (give or take 2 years), which indicates the presence of a global acidic dust veil, which could be from a volcano, or from exploding space-rocks. Space-rocks contain about 6 percent sulphur. They can also hit rocks on Earth which may contain sulphur. But, the evidence that Krakatoa exploded with intensity, seems to also coincide really well, especially with the report of a loud bang and “yellow snow” from China, and of “blood raining from the clouds” from Pompeiopolis.
If space rocks can induce significant seismic activity (as was recorded during the Tunguska air-burst), then it should be entirely plausible that fault lines under existing pressure, and volcanoes under existing pressure, could be nudged into releasing those pressures, from the enormous seismic waves resulting from high-velocity massive rocks from space.
So, maybe the events of 535 involved both space rocks, and Krakatoa, one triggering the other? If so, humanity could not have possibly been prepared for such a severe double-punch. In any case, there was a global veil of dust that cut incoming solar radiation for over a year, whatever the source of this dust may be.
Sunlight not only allows for crops to grow, but also cooks off fungal populations as crops mature. When the land is in shade, think of the underside of a rubber mat at a restaurant kitchen that hasn’t been cleaned in months. Things get rank. Things putrefy.
Leaf surfaces get covered in mildew which reduces photosynthesis. Crops like the potato succumb to fungal pressures very easily, and prefer good ventilation, and enjoy a good strong dose of sunlight every day. And it’s not just a matter of cooking off surface fungal populations, the plant’s own internal immune system is weakened by less sunlight, so that things like root-rot infections are harder to keep at bay.
At the same time, lack of incoming sunlight reduces evaporation of water to form clouds, which would water the crops in the first place. Not only this, but regular vegetation in the countryside, which holds the topsoil in place, preventing erosion, can also perish during a drought, which can then cause wind-erosion or flash-flood-erosion afterwards, once the plant roots have withered.
So, in 535, exploding space-rocks and/or a massive volcano (or some other source of dust), entombed Earth in a dry dense haze, for 18 months.
The blanket of dust significantly cut the amount of incoming solar radiation.
The lack of solar radiation reduced rainfall and weakened crops and natural vegetation.
The lack of solar radiation might also have slowed the convective currents in the oceans.
With fewer roots holding topsoil in place, the wind created dust storms, whisking the topsoil away.
Lack of rains also means lack of fresh water, and reduced sanitation.
When the rains returned, flash floods further eroded topsoil.
Flash floods and erosion also means less freshwater retained.
Crop failures led to bad nutrition and social stresses.
Bad nutrition and stress led to weakened immune systems.
Weakened immune systems and bad sanitation let infections proliferate.
And once again, as has happened countless times before, and as will happen countless times again (if we don’t pay attention to our celestial environment) unprepared peoples, worldwide, plunge into darkness, and we are tested to the limits of our adaptability and moral fibre:
At the peak of the Justinian Plague, five to ten thousand people perished each day, in Constantinople alone. When the figure reached a quarter-million, city officials stopped counting.
Twenty-five million souls would perish between 541 and 542 of a strain of the plague where you might see your hands fall off, after rotting away, starting from the fingertips. The bacterium, however, was only the final blow. Space rocks and/or volcanoes (or whatever source of dust), but more importantly: the resulting lack of incoming solar radiation was the real culprit, with all of its repercussions.
For the next 200 years, a weakened Europe saw periodic outbreaks of this form of the plague take roughly the same number of lives again.
After slowly inching our way out of this climate chaos and its repercussions, over the course of the two disease-rich centuries that followed 535, having reduced Europe to a primitive state of precarious survivalism, with decimated populations, gradually, starting around the late-800’s, and lasting until the late-1200’s, we enjoyed a generally climatically calm and settled warm period – the last period in which there were many individuals who read the Bible and Qur’an in a non-literal, symbolic way:
THE MEDIEVAL WARM PERIOD
~900 to ~1300
“For (much less than) five centuries, Europe (along with the rest of the world) basked in warm, settled weather, with only the occasional bitter winters, cool summers and memorable storms. Summer after summer passed with long, dreamy days, golden sunlight, and bountiful harvests. Compared with what was to follow (and what preceded it), these centuries were a climatic golden age. Local food shortages were not unknown, life expectancy in rural communities was short, and the routine of backbreaking labour never ended. Nevertheless, crop failures were sufficiently rare that peasant and lord alike might piously believe that God was smiling upon them.”
“As the Medieval Warm Period dawned and the Vikings crossed to Greenland and North America, Europe was a patchwork of feudal states and warring lords, unified only by the Christian faith. King Charlemagne founded his Frankish empire in 800. The Holy Roman Empire came into being in 962 but offered little security. The Norsemen ravaged the northern coasts for more than two hundred years, then acquired a veneer of culture from the lands where they settled. Knut the Dane, or “Canute the Great” (1016-35), famous for his attempts to control the tides, presided over a North Sea empire that linked Britain and Denmark. William the Bastard, Duke of Normandy, conquered the kingdom of England in 1066. He parceled out his new domains among his Norman lords and created a feudal realm, a dense network of contractual relationships, which connected the highest to the lowest in the land. Not that the vagaries of the weather made William’s task easier. Persistent north-westerly winds delayed his Channel crossing until October. Furthermore, two centuries of warm conditions had caused significant sea-level rises. A shallow fjord extended deep into eastern England as far as Norwich. The low-lying English fenlands became a labyrinth of shallow channels and islands so difficult of access for an invader that the Anglo-Danish inhabitants of the city of Ely, led by Hereward the Wake, were able to hold off the Normans for a decade after 1066.”
“Despite wars, crusades, schism and other strife, the Medieval Warm Period was a bountiful time for Europe. Most years passed with good harvests and enough to eat. Average summer temperatures were between 0.7 and 1.0 degrees C above levels in the 1900’s. Central European summers were even warmer, as much as 1.4 degrees C higher than their modern averages. May frosts, always a hazard for heat-loving crops, were virtually unknown between 1100 and 1300. The summer months were consistently sufficiently warm and dry for vineyards to spread across southern and central England, as far north as Hereford and Welsh borders. Commercial vineyards flourished 300 to 500 kilometers north of their limits in the 1900’s. During the height of the Medieval Warm Period, so many lords quaffed prime English wines that the French tried to negotiate trade agreements to exclude them from the Continent.”
“Rural and urban populations rose sharply… … New villages sprang up on hitherto un-cleared lands. Thousands of hectares of woodland fell before farmers’ axes… … Warmer summers and mild winters allowed small communities to grow crops on marginal soils and at higher altitudes than ever before – 350 meters above sea level on hills of Dartmoor in south-western England, on the Pennine Moors in the northeast, where, in the 1200’s, shepherds complained about the encroaching cultivation of prized grazing range, and on the summits of south-eastern Scotland’s Lammermuir Hills, 320 meters above sea level. Today, neither Dartmoor nor the Pennine Moors support crops and the upper limit of cereal growth in the Lammermuirs is well below that of 1250. In 1300, one farm owned by Kelso Abbey in southern Scotland had over 100 hectares of land under cultivation, supported 1400 sheep and sixteen shepherds’ households – all at 300 meters above sea level, well above today’s limit. By the same year, thousands of farmers had settled on high ground and on marginal lands throughout England and Scotland, which placed them at risk of crop failure.“
“In Scandinavia, settlement, forest clearance, and farming spread 100 to 200 meters farther up valleys and hillsides in central Norway, from levels that had been static for more than 1000 years. What was grown around Trondheim and hardier grains such as oats as far north as Malagan, at latitude 62.5 degrees north. The height change hints at a rise in summer temperatures of about a degree centigrade, a similar increase to that across the North Sea in Scotland. Farming became considerably easier in the Scottish highlands as a result, as forests spread outward into hitherto treeless environments. Far to the south, in the Alps, tree levels rose sharply and farmers planted deeper and deeper into the mountains. During late prehistoric times, numerous copper mines had flourished in the Alps until advancing ice sealed them off. Late medieval miners reopened some of the workings when the ice retreated. Higher rainfall spread over much of southern Europe and the western Mediterranean. As a result, some Sicilian rivers were navigable in ways that would be impossible today. Medieval bridges, like the one in Palermo, still span them, but are far longer than now necessary, simply because the rivers were wider nine hundred years ago.”
All of the quotes from Jewish and Islamic mystics on the previous page were from authors writing during this Medieval Warm Period, or from authors quoting from or expressing the views of Jewish and Islamic mystics during this Medieval Warm Period.
The dating of the Zohar is a subject of contention, but, the earliest copies date to the Medieval Warm Period.
The core of Sufism arose during the Medieval Warm Period, crystalized during the Medieval Warm Period, and most authors worth mentioning lived during the Medieval Warm Period.
The Chishtiyya order of the Sufis was established at the beginning of the Medieval Warm Period, in 930.
The Qadiriyya order of the Sufis was established near the peak of the Medieval Warm Period, in the 1100’s.
Isma’ilism was born at the dawn of the Medieval Warm Period.
I think it is very telling that the Qur’an was popularized just before the Medieval Warm Period, and then this was immediately followed by a period with large numbers of individuals interpreting the Qur’an in a non-literal fashion.
Sandwiched between the environmentally unstable ages of 535-800 and 1315-1850, this Medieval Warm Period represents a brief gasp for the fresh air of reason and depth of thought. This is the last time Earth witnessed a flourishing of the symbolic non-literal interpretation of scripture in many quarters. To be sure, there was plenty of stupidity, violence, and barbarism during this time, and the mystics were in fact well aware of this and wrote of the state of affairs.
For example, Ibn Arabi wrote a work describing some of the benevolent, good-willed, strong-spirited folks that he met in his travels, precisely to prove that there were good people with strong and true devotional spirit in his time. For example, this is part of his description of Abu Al-Hajjaj Yusuf Al-Shubardbuli:
“No matter how many people came to visit him he would put whatever food he had in front of them, leaving nothing aside for himself. One day, when a group of people were visiting him, he had me bring down the provisions basket for them. This I did, but found in it a mere handful of chick-peas. These he offered to them.
I myself have witnessed many evidences of his spiritual grace. He was one of those who could walk on water. At his house in the village he had a well, the water from which he used to perform his ritual ablutions [cleansing]. We noticed that there was, next to the well, a high fruit-bearing olive tree with a stout trunk. One of our companions asked him why he had planted the tree in such a place, where it restricted access to the well. Then he looked up at us, his back being bowed with age, and replied that, although he had been brought up in the house he had not noticed the tree till then; such was his preoccupation with his inner state.
… This Shaikh was like his own Shaikh, always answered when he made supplication and having the power to walk upon water. One night thieves broke into his house and took some things he had there. While all this was going on the Shaikh was on his prayer mat too absorbed in his devotions to notice their presence.....
… A great deal of what I remember of him cannot be recorded here, as is also the case with the others I have written about in this book. I have written of all of them only to show that our times are not completely lacking in Saintly men.”
Sufis of Andalusia
The Ruh al-quds and al-Durrat al-fakhirah of Ibn ‘Arabi
Translated by R.W.J. Austin
School of Oriental Studies, University of Durham
Beshara publications 2002
Pages 81 - 83
“Walking on water”?
Here the author gave a description of a man doing two things as being evidence of an ability to “walk on water” – being oblivious to the tumultuous surroundings – the conditions abound him – the commotion and annoyances surrounding him.
So then, did the author expect the reader to understand that “walking on water” is a metaphor? What other possibility is there?
The passage in the New Testament where Jesus is walking on water was not on a calm sea, but on a tumultuous one. And, this is immediately after Jesus heard the news of the death of John the Baptist.
So then, did the author expect the reader to understand that Jesus “walking on water” is a metaphor? If so, what is symbolised by “water” in Semitic scripture, and how does the symbol “Jesus” get to walk on it so easily, and how come “Peter” has a harder time of it?
1315 was the first step in blotting out the memory of the Medieval Warm Period, which had seen, in certain regions, a significant portion of Jewish, Muslim and Christian practitioners, interpreting Semitic scripture in a non-literal way.
After 1315, especially once Andalusia (Moorish Spain) was kicked out, and the Inquisition forced everybody, especially those with non-orthodox interpretations of Semitic scripture, to convert or die; the complex symbolism underlying the texts was thereafter studied by very few, and only in secret.
As a society plummets into darkness, and things get desperate (space-rocks, earthquakes, volcanoes, too much solar activity, not enough solar activity, drought, floods, wind storms, soil erosion, crop failure, famine, cannibalism, pestilence, plague, refugees, piracy, war, etc…), there is less time or patience for the finer study of Semitic scripture, in detail, and pondering its many layers of meaning. People are tired, hungry, and want easy answers, and the literal reading satisfies the soul so much more readily than boring mystical complicated tedious speculations about an alleged infinite universe, and the underlying symbolism of scripture, with intricate tapestries of interconnected symbols interwoven across books, which, on the surface, pretend to disagree between one another.
A regular peasant living during chaotic times, won’t have time to learn Aramaic, Arabic, Hebrew, and other Semitic languages, and compare their vocabularies in a systematic way, to discern fine layers of letter-play between the major works of Semitic scripture. They might not even have had time to learn to read and write in their own native tongue! But, they would, nevertheless, yearn to understand what happened to all of their friends and family that perished from the plague, and why it happened, and what to make of a short life of 30-40 years, and maybe feel good once a week, in an awe-inspiring building with hypnotic music and hair-raising speeches, with a sense of larger purpose and hope for rewards to come.
The authors of Semitic scripture understood that this recurs. Often.
These are robust texts, with a built-in survival mechanism.
They understood that, at times, the obviously symbolic texts will only be read literally.
They knew very well of the recurrence of serious floods and serious fires, and of their consequences.
Reverting back to a literal interpretation of Semitic scripture is a natural consequence of natural climate change, affecting the natural state of human affairs, naturally.
The authors understood that this will happen again and again. The key is that, if copied correctly, letter-by-letter, the original scripture can eventually, once the climate returns to amenable, and with civilization returning to a state where much spare time can be devoted to studying the finer details; the underlying symbolism can be appreciated, and the fictional literal reading can be put into context.
For this to work, the original books must absolutely be copied correctly, no matter how the translations may vary. So, it doesn’t matter if there are 37 different versions of the Qur’an in Pashto, but it does matter if the original Arabic source is messed with.
What is the purpose of all this, you might ask? Well, one reason is that wild zealotry will always flourish, at all times, even in good times, in all places, among all peoples, guaranteed, for sure, without doubt; and so to hypnotize the zealous, (which are often in the majority, as is the case today, and who often have crazy and wacky objectives for us all) – the authors seduced billions of people to focus their wackiness on these specific books, drawing these types of souls in with outlandish tales of defying the laws of nature and false promises of eternal rewards and immortality; then, during ages of prosperity, they can all be snapped out of hypnosis, and find that the particular stories they have devoted their hearts and minds to, represent in fact a very rational and logical view of an infinite eternal universe governed not only by physics and chemistry, but also by the souls of living entities, which are each animated by infinite living souls within, and affected by infinite living souls outside of them, and infinite living souls moving through them.
This exceptional period, the Medieval Warm Period, is the last vestige (in the written historical record), of a widely-understood non-literal appreciation of Semitic scripture. Before this, the Justinian plague wiped out much memory, and after this, the famine induced by the 1315+ rains, the plagues of 1347-1351, the inquisition, the criminal destruction of the 1000 Mayan Codices and other historical records and sites in the Americas by the Spanish and the Smithsonian; and other calamities, both human-induced and natural, wiped out our memory even further.
If we are at all interested in ecological sustainability, and if we are at all concerned with fully addressing fundamentalism (wild zealotry), and if we are at all concerned about the survival and quality of life of our descendants, we would do well to study this little nugget of time. Not only does this period point to solving past riddles, but studying this period guides us to understanding what’s in store for our future. Even if it was only a very small minority of educated literate practitioners during a small portion of this Medieval Warm Period, their works are essentially the only ones that remain which clearly treat the Bible and Qur’an as precious fictional documents hiding symbols which represent fundamental things found throughout the universe.
Modern proud “educated” people look down upon the authors of the Bible and Qur’an, and ridicule those who today believe in their literal surface interpretation alone.
Modern proud “educated” people assume that the people who wrote the Bible and the Qur’an actually believed in physical talking snakes, actually believed in talking donkeys, actually believed in magic carpet rides, literal walking on water, actual turning water into wine, and eating from a literal “Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Bad”, and eating from an actual physical literal “Tree of Life”, in a geographical garden of “Delights”.
Modern proud “educated” people assume that the Bible and Qur'an are not worth reading because the authors didn’t understand natural law and didn’t understand that there is no such thing as a “Tree of Knowledge of Good and Bad” – that such things do not exist, therefore the texts are completely without value. Genius assumption!
Modern proud “educated” people never consider the possibility that things in the Bible and the Qur'an are symbols. They assume the authors were either trying to fool people or were themselves fools, and those are the only two possibilities.
Modern proud “educated” people refuse to investigate the Bible and the Qur'an. They allow themselves ignorance when it comes to these books, and don't bother to actually study the material for what it is. They show disrespect to those who read these texts literally and with zeal, without even having read the material, much less having contemplated on the symbolic meaning. They are therefore not following the scientific method in their blind dismissal of Semitic scripture. There is a difference between scepticism and science. A huge difference. Scepticism can in fact, as in this case, impede science.
The perfect analogy would be to imagine, two thousand years from now, some fundamentalist believers in the written scripture of The Lord of the Rings, with wild tales of feats contradicting natural law. Maybe they would have rituals like “the passing of the ring”, with elaborate ceremonies commemorating the success of their saviour, the great Frodo, and his disciples, Gandalf the resurrected one riding a gleaming white horse, the fat one always eating up all the provisions in secret, and the devious traitor Smeagol, who betrays the other apostles. Maybe their churches are instead little hobbit huts, and instead of a choir, they have elves chanting Gaelic hymns. Maybe some of them had infiltrated the history departments of universities of the late 39th century, to promote a version of history identical to the histories recorded in the canonical 3 books, drawing upon the non-canonical works such as The Hobbit – the earliest corroborating text of the main orthodox triplet of surviving manuscripts of The Lord of the Rings, the existing copies of which, in several different languages, have been pieced together in a composite manner, to arrive at the true historical record of our saviour, the great Frodo, and the exploits of Saint Samwise from Gluttonshire.
Proud “educated” people, in the 41st century, might then look upon the writing of The Lord of the Rings, as an evil malicious attempt to seduce impressionable minds that “trees are able to walk and talk”, having no symbolic value underlying the fictional narrative. The symbolism of the trees demolishing the factory, run by goblins that had hacked down their tree-friends in the forest, would likewise be completely lost on proud “educated” people. They would allow themselves to not even read the texts directly. They would literally allow themselves to be ignorant of the text of The Lord of the Rings. The text does not follow natural law, therefore the text has no value, therefore proud “educated” people wouldn’t need to study it – employing the rigours of investigation (expending effort), in order to understand it, in order to assess its true value, or to de-programme those who believe in it literally (which would be super-easy, because the symbolism is super-obvious).
Even with millions upon millions of proud “educated” people on Earth today, there were more individuals during the height of the Medieval Warm Period enjoying and promoting a non-literal interpretation of Semitic scripture, than can be found in all of today’s religious followings, or among spiritualist new-age thinkers, or even in secular circles, or humanist and atheist circles, and especially in mainstream academia, or anywhere else! Mainstream history is in fact based on the Bible. It starts 6000 years ago, between the two rivers mentioned in the garden of Eden. Then, we are taught about how slaves built great works of stone in Egypt, which matches the very next book in the Bible, Exodus. We often hear about the “historical Jesus”, the “historical Muhammad”, etc… We present our children with movies with Charlton Heston playing Moses, physically parting waters, and Jesus-movies-of-the-week with a bearded cloaked dude actually literally walking on water. At the same time, when opening a textbook, we are told that kings Solomon and David were actual historical figures, based on actual archaeological finds; while many publicly-funded universities have theology departments, and history departments staffed with devout religious professors, who do not question the historicity of Semitic scripture at all, in fact, it is the basis – the framework of their curricula!
We should therefore respect at least some of the authors of the Medieval Warm Period, specifically those who demonstrated better sense than millions of proud ostensibly educated people today.
"Jewish Sufi manuscripts discovered during the late 1800’s in the Cairo Genizah (a hidden attic in an ancient Synagogue) have shed great light on the close relationship between Jewish and Muslim mystics of medieval times. From the 1000’s to the 1300’s, Jewish mystics translated and freely quoted from Sufi mystical writing, and some pursued the spiritual path under the guidance of Sufi masters. Similarly, during almost the same period, Jewish mystics in Persia and Turkey shared a devotional spirit with the Muslim mystics of their time. Many read Hebrew translations of the works of Rumi and Sa'adi. “
“The Jewish mystics in the Sufi tradition were sometimes called hasidim ("devotees", "pious ones"). Although this movement, and the Hasidei Ashkenaz movement which arose in Germany during the 1200’s, were not connected historically with what later became known as Hasidism – the ecstatic religious movement which began in the 1700’s in Poland – they foreshadowed many of its elements..."
"... Maimonide's son Abraham and grandson Obaydyah were mystics in the Sufi tradition."
The Holy Name
Miriam Bokser Caravella
(publisher: Radha Soami Satsang Beas)
pages 13, 14
The literature of the Sufis is of very much the same style as the Kabbalistic literature:
“Instead of marginal comments alongside the Qur’an or full treatises in which substantial Qur’anic passages are cited in full and discussed, the commentaries of early Sufis have come down to us in the form of discussions instigated by the mention of a key Qur’anic word that can then suddenly jump to a new Qur’anic term and a new discussion.”
Early Islamic Mysticism
Micheal A. Sells
New York/Mahwah 1996
Many Kabbalists did not call themselves “Kabbalists”. Many simply called themselves “Rabbis”.
“At first the word ‘Kabbalah’ did not especially denote a mystical or esoteric tradition. In the Talmud it is used [to refer to] the extra-Pentateuchal parts of the Bible [all books except for the first 5: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy], and in post-Talmudic literature the Oral Law is also called ‘Kabbalah’. “
Gershom Gerhard Scholem
New York Quadrangle / New York Times Book Co, 1974
The Talmud is a record of various rabbinic discussions which outline and explore Jewish civil and religious laws and also provides commentary on the Hebrew scriptures. It was compiled between the 100’s and 400’s (AD).
'Kabbalah' was not the only term used in Jewish literature to denote a sort of esoteric understanding of scripture:
“The Talmud speaks of sitrei torah and razei torah (“secrets of the Torah”)”
“In the mystical literature from the close of the Talmudic period and afterward, the terms ba’alei ha-sod (“masters of the mystery”) and anshei emunah (“men of belief”) already occur.”
“In the period of the Provencal [French] and Spanish Kabbalists the Kabbalah is also called hokhmah penimit (“inner wisdom”), …… and the Kabbalists are often called maskilim (“the understanding ones”), with reference to Daniel 12:10, or doreshei reshumot (“those who interpret texts”), a Talmudic expression for allegorists.”
“From the beginning of the 1300’s the name Kabbalah almost completely superseded all other designations.”
Gershom Gerhard Scholem
New York Quadrangle / New York Times Book Co
The Torah is likened to a nut by some Kabbalists. Just as a nut has an outer shell and an inner kernel, so too does the Torah. Moses de Leon(1240 – 1305) used the acronym PaRDeS to denote four levels of meaning in the Torah:
“…P stands for peshat, the literal meaning, R for remez, the allegorical meaning, D for derasha, the Talmudic and Aggadic interpretation, S for sod, the mystical meaning.”
On The Kabbalah And Its Symbolism
Gershom Gerhard Scholem
New York 1969
Before the events of 535, there was a similar trend, but with even stranger and more quirky and colourful views of Semitic scripture. There were at least 4 distinct forms of early Christianity. For example, the Marcionites promoted a ‘docetic’ view of Christ (not a flesh and bone being).
At around the 100’s, we see strange Gospels, which are no longer included in our regular accepted canonical orthodox Bible. For good reason. Can you imagine a priest standing up to deliver Sunday morning’s sermon, and having to field questions from puzzled little-old-lady-churchgoers, after reading from The Infancy Gospel of Thomas :
“The narrative opens with the young Jesus playing by the ford of a stream. Taking some clay, he models twelve sparrows. But, we are told, it was a Sabbath when he did this. A Jewish man passing by sees what Jesus has done and hurries off to tell his father, Joseph, that his son has profaned the Sabbath (by “making” things). Joseph comes and upbraids Jesus for violating the Law. Instead of apologizing or repenting for a sin, Jesus claps his hands and cries to the sparrows: “Be gone!” They immediately come to life and fly off chirping.
This opening story is indicative of much to come in the narrative. Jesus cannot be faulted for breaking the Sabbath (he has effectively destroyed all evidence of malfeasance!), and already as a young child he is seen as the author of life, not bound to human rules and regulations.
One might have expected that with such supernatural powers, Jesus would have been a useful and entertaining playmate for the other kids in town. As it turns out, however, the boy has a temper and is not to be crossed. When another child accidentally runs into him on the street, Jesus turns in anger and declares, “You shall go no further on your way.” The child falls down dead. Jesus later raises him from the dead, along with others that he cursed on one occasion or another.
And Jesus’ wrath is not reserved for other children. Joseph sends him to school to learn to read, but Jesus refuses to recite the Greek alphabet. His teacher pleads with him to cooperate, until Jesus replies with a scornful challenge: “If you really are a teacher and know the letters well, tell me the power of Alpha and I’ll tell you the power of Beta.” More than a little perturbed, the teacher cuffs the boy on the head, the single largest mistake of an illustrious teaching career. Jesus withers him on the spot. Joseph is stricken with grief and gives an urgent order to his mother: “Do not let him go outside. Anyone who makes him angry dies.”
As time goes on, however, Jesus begins using his powers for good – saving his brother from a deadly snake bite, healing the sick, and proving remarkably handy around the house: When Joseph mis-cuts a board and is in danger of losing an important customer, Jesus performs a miracle to correct the mistake. The account concludes with Jesus as a twelve-year-old in the Temple, surrounded by scribes and Pharisees who hear him teach and who bless Mary for the wonderful child she has brought into the world.”
The Infancy Gospel of Thomas
Lost Christianities: The Battles for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew
Bart D. Ehrman
It is interesting that our modern “orthodox” bible has no mention of Jesus forming clay birds and breathing life into them, but the Qur’an does, in Sura 3, verse 49, and Sura 5, verse 110.
It should be obvious, from this and many other points of logic, that the Qur’an was not written in isolation, and is very much an integral part of a single piece of composition – a single cohesive contiguous storyline – the unified group of Semitic scriptural works, written in harmony and for combined effect.
This period, before the events of 535, saw the compilation of the Talmud, with little nuggets like these, which allude to letter-symbolism within the Old Testament:
"A scribe must provide a distinguishing mark for the section beginning "And it came to pass when the ark set forward" both at its beginning and at its end, because it is a book on its own."
Talmud: tractate Soferim 6:1
"The HAY (t) of Ha-Adonai (t-qrga) must be longer than any other HAY, because it is a word on its own."
Talmud: tractate Soferim 9:6
"… Bezalel knew how to combine the letters by which the heavens and the earth were created."
Talmud: tractate Berakoth 55a
Hebrew-English editions of the Babylonian Talmud – Minor Tractates
The Soncino press – London 1984
Under the editorship of Rev Dr. Abraham Cohen MA, PHD, DHL.
In the Talmud were various guidelines concerning the copying of manuscripts. There were guidelines for the preparation of the skin of the parchments, the preparation of the ink, the repairing and discarding of scrolls, the proper handling of scrolls, the use of foodstuffs when dealing with scrolls, the qualifications of the scribes, etc… But the guidelines which most concern us here are these:
· The words written could not be duplicated from memory but had to be reproduced from an authentic copy that the scribe had before him.
· The scribe had to say each word aloud as he wrote it.
· Letters and words had to be spaced at a certain distance. No word could touch another and no letter could touch another.
· Each scroll had to be checked within thirty days of its writing or it was condemned.
· If a sheet of parchment had one mistake on it, the sheet was condemned.
· If there were three mistakes found on any page, the whole manuscript was condemned.
· Every word and every letter in a completed scroll was meticulously counted. If a letter or word was omitted, the manuscript was condemned.
This list is a reduced version of the one found all over the web.
I have often come across this list, but I could only verify a portion of it.
The Talmud is huge and I’ve searched what few tractates I thought might provide the direct quotes.
I could only find a few of the items in tractate Sefer ha-Torah, chapter 2, rules 1 & 2
chapter 3, rules 4 & 5
tractate Soferim chapter 3 rules 7, 8 & 9
chapter 5, rules 6, 10 & 11
and tractate Kiddushin 30a
From this same period (probably), we find a very strange, very short, and very cryptic book, the Sepher Yetzira:
"He hath formed, weighed, transmuted, composed, and created with these twenty-two letters every living being, and every soul yet uncreated… … For He indeed showed the mode of combination of the letters, each with each, Aleph with all, and all with Aleph. Thus in combining all together in pairs are produced these two hundred and thirty-one gates of knowledge."
The dating of the Sepher Yetsira is not established
It could be from the Talmudic period, between the 100’s to 400’s AD
“In the late 1800’s, the great German historian Leopold Van Ranke, in the last years of his career, set out to write his own Universal History, which he called A World History, and it was left unfinished upon his death in 1886. Writing in the 1880’s, he was well aware of the challenge of Darwinism, and the nature of geological time, he knew that the archaeologists were digging up the fossils and antiquities of Man, but as he wrote in the preface to his first volume:
“The province of history is limited by the means at her command, and the historian would be overbold who should venture to unveil the mystery of the primeval world – and of the relation of Mankind to God and Nature. The solution of such problems must be entrusted to the joint efforts of Theology and Science.”
-Leopold Van Ranke
The opening chapters of his book then go on to narrate the story of Genesis. That Genesis should still be relevant in 1886, is not that remarkable. In certain circles, the habit of writing histories that begin in Eden have never abated. It is significant only because many historians in the United States and elsewhere, consider Leopold Van Ranke to be the father of the modern discipline of history. He may have accepted that something existed on the other side of the veil, but he chose to consign that history to Theology and Science.
Now, that pair, Theology and Science, do not exactly make ideal foster parents. Ranke’s own history was sandwiched between several important volumes in the early history of the warfare between Science and Religion, which were being published in the latter decades of the 1800’s, and the theologians and scientists have been duking it out ever since. Yet historians, in the tradition of Ranke, continued to watch indifferently from the sidelines, and this is because History, for all intents and purposes, tells a story that is chronologically and geographically indistinguishable from Genesis.
Though the history has been translated into secular terms, it still begins in Mesopotamia, and it still begins 6000 years ago. To this extent, History gives no comfort to the disciplines who are still fighting the time wars.
Ranke aside, the textbooks that emerged in the United States in the 1880’s, textbooks, part of the new history curricula, typically start, you can go look at them, typically start with the fully formed pyramids of Egypt. None of this was a problem as long as humanity’s deep past remained unknown and concealed. But in the 1800’s, geologists, archaeologists, and biologists, began pulling aside the veil that had hitherto obscured our knowledge of the speechless past. This is what troubled figures like Leopold Van Ranke, whose careers had spanned the time-revolution of the 1860’s, for how could he hope to keep the time of Judeo-Christian history, uncontaminated by the tens of thousands of human fossils and eoliths that had been dug up by the 1880’s. The only solution was an epistemological one – to declare that these kinds of sources are not suitable for History!
As French historians, disciples of Leopold Van Ranke … … wrote in an important manual of historical methodology published in the 1890’s:
“The historian works with documents. Documents are the traces that have been left of the thoughts and actions of men of former times. For want of documents, the history of immense periods of the past of humanity is destined to remain forever unknown. For there is no substitute for documents.”
No documents, no history. In the wake of this epistemological move, scientific history came to be restricted to written documents.
Just to summarize: Why documents? Well, it eliminates the threat posed by archaeology, a threat not only to the sacred history, that people like Leopold Van Ranke still believed in, but also the bewildering threat of: how the hell are we going to write a history that embraces all of that time.
So what are we left with? A historical framework, that by chronological and geographical sleight of hand, continues to teach the history told by Genesis.
I was teaching in New York State, and I went to the New York State social studies high school curriculum and had a look at when that curriculum began history, and it began in 4000 BC. That’s when history began. I was chatting with high school history teachers and I asked them: “do you know why they chose 4000 BC?”. First city? No – the first city is younger than that. Howbout writing? Nope, that’s 800 years after that. What they didn’t know is that 4000 BC is pretty much the same date that Archbishop Ussher had assigned, in the 1600’s, to the creation of the world (October 23rd, 4004 BC).
This made me wonder: is it possible, that the field of History, is in some way, some small way, complicit with Young-Earth-Creationism?!”
Daniel Lord Smail, professor of history at Harvard
Beyond Belief: Enlightenment 2.0, Symposium, 2007
We can put our trust in many aspects of Science – particularly in the fields where observation and experiment are possible (close to our size and our time), like in basic medicine, basic chemistry, basic geology, basic engineering principles, etc… The method works wonders to investigate and discern the nature of things near to our own size and within our reach and near to our time.
Scientists would be much more helpful, however, if they were to pause to reflect way deeper, before making definite assertions about deep time, and about the super-small and the super-large, and about human antiquity, and most importantly, about the nature of Life and the minds of living organisms.
It would also reduce much confusion in youth attending school, if what is pure theory can be distinguished from science fact. There could be a logo that could be affixed to concepts in the textbooks, like “N. O.”, for “Never Observed”. Proto-planetary accretion discs? N.O. Dark Energy? N.O. Dark Matter? N.O. 12-dimensional things? N.O. Wormholes? N.O. The Oort cloud? N.O. It wouldn’t take up too much space in the textbooks. This really is not asking for much, especially seeing as science claims to be evidence-based / observationally-based! It would only be fair. Maybe this honest approach would lead to new discoveries, by opening up novel avenues of thought, and also demonstrating the actual limits of our abilities to determine the nature of nature, and would put science class in context with other pursuits in school that might deserve greater attention, like integrative mythology, cross-discipline contemplation, or even farming.
Out of all of the wild fantastical ridiculous science myths that are forcibly taught in school and promoted on TV, like: multiple universes, parallel universes, successions of universes, universes wrapping in on themselves, time-travel, 12-dimensional entities, 1-dimensional entities, energy can exist independently of matter as a thing in of itself, wormholes, black holes, dark energy, dark matter, Schrodinger’s cat, the official explanation for quantum entanglement (a single thing being in two places at once), the indivisibility of the electron and other “fundamental” particles (Atomism), galaxies rotating from gravity alone, solar systems rotating from gravity alone, planets and stars spinning from gravity alone (with gravity exhibiting no such directionality), geological and climatological Uniformitarianism and Gradualism, the Church of Progress’s specific brand of the Theory of Evolution; out of allllll of these sorts of wild baseless myths we are force-fed today, there is no myth more pernicious, more damaging, more stifling, and more detrimental to the health of our collective consciousness than the myth that our cells are mindless automatic chemical zombie robots – with their “internal machinery” consisting of “power plants” and “assembly lines”.
We are told that the DNA molecule along with cellular environmental conditions, explain %100 of cellular behaviours, and, by extension, %100 of the behaviours of multi-cellular organisms. Any trait you have, like strength, is said to be something like %35 genetic, and %65 from your environment. Bone density = %27 genetic, %73 environment. Jealousy = %82.5 genetic, %17.5 environment. Cells have no say, at all, in any action they conduct. Every thing a cell does is governed precisely and totally (%100) by genetics and its environment alone. Not even %1 credit is given to the living minds of your living cells. They have no say in any matter, day after day. But, apparently, most DNA is “junk”, and we can blast these “junk” regions with genes we want to insert for profit, because these “junk” regions have no value at all – just useless leftovers like your appendix?!
We are told that we cannot even consider the possibility that electrons are alive, because they are just “point-particles”. “Point-particle” is not a description of anything, nor is it a limit on any possible description. It does not add to our understanding of electrons, and is not based on any observation, test or even theory. It basically reveals that we don’t know what it is. “Particle”. OK. That word just means “small thing”. “Point-Particle” OK. Is this a spatial description? Is this a physical description? It is left essentially undefined. “Point-particle” is a placeholder for our ignorance, not some result of some high-resolution photograph.
If you are just a collection of particles which only act in a single possible way, accordingly to the immutable laws of chemistry and physics, and these are grouped into cells, and you are a grouping of cells; then do you actually ever make any decisions? Do you choose anything? If you do wrong, could you just plead yourself as a victim of the inevitable single possible way your particles and chemicals and cells and organs could have possibly acted? You had no choice, other than what all of the mathematically predictable particles were pre-destined to do, in each moment? You are just a bag of lifeless particles and molecules bouncing around in a single possible physical way as described by modern chemistry and physics equations? Should anybody be culpable of wrong-doing then? Should anybody celebrate an achievement then? If we are all just walking bags of tiny absolutely predictable machines that act in a single possible way, then each thought you enjoy and each action you take is the single possible outcome from previous conditions, completely out of your control, so we could save lots of money and close all the courthouses, and cancel all the award ceremonies?!
What a dry, void, naïve, simplistic, childish, lego-block, mechanistic and utterly unconvincing myth we have all been sold!
I am not just a collection of absolutely mathematically reducible and predictable elements that act and react in a single way defined by your ridiculous allegedly absolute ”Laws” of quantum mechanics, chemistry and physics!!!
I am more than this!
I chose to write this!
I am alive!
You have no explanation for me!
You have no equation for me!
“How can one describe the universe at the beginning of time? I now think I can show how the universe was spontaneously created out of nothing according to the Laws of science. The universe exists because the Laws of general relativity and quantum theory allow and require it to exist. If I’m right, the universe is self-contained, and governed by science alone.”
In a lecture at the university of California at Berkley, 2007
Modern proud “educated” people dismiss and ignore ancient mythology as pure invented fantasy, and dismiss advanced symbolic ancient scripture as borne from the minds of the weak and superstitious and inept; while at the very same time forcibly promoting a truly incomprehensible, incongruous, fantastical, certifiably insane (time travel, for example), and wildly illogical view of the universe, which is in fact more outrageous than the themes and notions described in ancient mythology or high-level works of symbolic scripture, all over the world.
The rocky, stratified, and cratered, surfaces of comets, as well as their tendency to disintegrate under various stresses from the Sun, is taken from the work of the Thunderbolts project, at Thunderbolts.info.
I highly recommend interested readers to view the materials provided by the Thunderbolts project. You may not agree with Venus having been a comet, or that mars was ejected from Jupiter, but that being said, they have presented soooooooo many strong theoretical challenges to mainstream cosmology. Dave Talbott’s planetary model may seem ridiculous, but his comparative mythology is second-to-none in the world today, and raises deep questions which no mainstream professional would dare to tackle.
Episode three of their major feature-length series Symbols of an Alien Sky, is focused on the nature of comets. I highly recommend viewing this masterpiece.
Along the same themes, I highly recommend two videos on the youtube: Halton Arp’s Intrinsic Redshift, and Universe: Cosmology Quest – 2 parts. Whereas Cosmology Quest offers a historical layout of how Big Bang Creationism came to be dominant in the halls of academia and during science-TV-dinners, Intrinsic Redshift provides truly stunning basic observations of galaxies and quasars and offers delicious food for thought. I find that these basic observations – and more of their ilk, would be soooo much more engaging for students, rather than pre-packaged theories full of assumptions and “epicycles”. Even if you disagree with Arp’s interpretation of mass, it doesn’t matter, his basic observations, are worth their weight in neutron-star material (which turns out was Never Observed). Neutron-Stars? N.O.!
For the paraphrased detailed account of the 1908 Tunguska event: The Tungus Event, by Rupert Furneaux, 1977, Panther Books. Yes, that is how this book is entitled: “Tungus”, and not “Tunguska”.
The alternative view of the Peshtigo firestorm is presented by Randall Carlson, in Fire From the Sky, Turner Original Productions, Inc, A Time-Warner Company, 1997. This documentary also details the frequency of the roughly bi-weekly nuclear-strength air-bursts from space-rocks hitting our atmosphere, as evidenced from a US military study.
Randall Carlson is also (among other things) the fellow who pointed out the research (4 papers written by qualified glaciologists and others in the field), which demonstrate that CO2 follows temperature changes, and not the other way around. I highly recommend delving into Randall’s websites – GeoCosmicRex.com and SacredGeometryInternational.com. Randall is very well-read, in terms of mainstream science literature on catastrophism, and he brings a unique passion for decoding many of the riddles found throughout this particular page on catastrophism, and offers interesting perspectives and food for thought to solve these riddles. Randall offers lateral thinking in geology, long-term broad-minded analysis of natural climate change, and interesting perspectives on medieval symbolism and legends and esoteric writings, and ancient mythology as it relates to natural catastrophism. Most important of all, Randall demonstrates a genuine concern for avoiding catastrophe in the future – a rare trait these days, and really, in the end, this is the only thing that matters, regardless of the details of decoding the riddles of the past.
For the eye-witness accounts of comets, meteors, and their associated effects on climate:
Contributions towards a History of the Star-Showers of Former Times
Communicated by Edward C. Herrick, Rec. Sec. of the Conn. Acad.
Read before the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, April 28, 1840; and since revised.
Printed in The American Journal of Science and Arts
Volume 39, 1840 Pages 349+
“A full account of the showers of shooting stars which have visited our planet, would much enlarge our knowledge of the system of bodies from which we receive these brilliant strangers. But a mere catalogue even, of all these displays is too much to hope for, inasmuch as some of them have doubtless been concealed by clouds, and others witnessed only by barbarians. Of those which have been preserved by the historian, a complete collection cannot at present be made in this country, owing to the insufficiency of our means of historical inquiry.”
General Chronological History of Air, Weather, Seasons, Meteors. Dr. Thomas Short London 1749
The accounts from 535 come from a great documentary called Catastrophe: Part 1: The Day the Sun Went Out & Part 2: How The World Changed. The principle investigator for this documentary is David Keys, who is archaeology correspondent for the London daily paper, The Independent, “consulting over 80 experts on drought, famine, floods, cosmic and ecological disasters, epidemics, and ancient wars. He scoured the chronicles from the 500’s and 600’s AD, from all over the world.” His book is entitled: Catastrophe: An Investigation into the Origins of the Modern World (2000).
Also, for the events of 535, a Wikipedia page provided many of the quotes: Extreme Weather Events of 535-536.
The detailed accounts from the Little Ice Age and the Medieval Warm Period are taken from:
The Little Ice Age
Basic Books, New York, New York, 2000
This is an absolutely excellent book, very well written, full of insight, and written with respect for the victims of natural climate change.
To be fair, he puts way more emphasis on human-induced climate change to explain modern climate change, than would be evident from the quotes and their context in this page. He does, however, conclude that we do not understand the sun enough to say what proportion of influence it has over other factors. He describes the situation on page 212:
“Part of the reason we don’t know to what extent our present climate change is natural has to do with the sun. The sun has always been a dynamic player in global climate change, but the extent of its influence is still a mystery. Research has hardly begun.”
And then he goes on to describe complicated theories about the workings of the sun, with our preliminary investigations using new sound waves to penetrate the photosphere. And then he mentions solar wind briefly, and presents another theory:
“When numerous coronae cover the solar surface, the increased solar winds produce greater terrestrial cloud cover, and average temperatures drop. The importance of this effect is still unknown.
And then he mentions the 11-year solar cycle, and how we don’t understand that either:
“Solar radiation is never constant, making it a possible cause of climate change, and a factor in the current warming. Over the past twenty years, space-based measurements of solar radiation, the first accurate data on these fluctuations, have revealed eleven-year cycles that correspond to the well-known eleven-year cycle of sunspots. Solar intensity is greater at times of higher sunspot activity. Proxy measurements from tree rings and ice cores chronicle these cycles and longer term fluctuations in earlier centuries. We know solar activity was high during the 1100’s and 1200’s, the height of the medieval warm period. Present levels of solar irradiance are higher than periods of unusually low sunspot activity during the Sporer Minimum (1425-1575), the Maunder Minimum (1645-1715), and the Dalton Minimum (1790-1820).”
After describing the infancy of solar science, he then categorically states that the sun has not contributed enough to explain current temperatures, and that the sun will not give out more intensity, because it has maxed out, relative to the last 8000 years, so we don’t need to worry about its impact on global climate.
This is extremely frustrating and disappointing to read, in the concluding paragraphs of a book that details the climate dips of 1315 and the 1600’s, with the consequences for society, with concurrent sunspot activity nearly disappearing, and concurrent auroral activity disappearing; and then with the Carrington event marking a clear change in solar output concurrent with glaciers melting and temperatures rising in the 1850’s; to then suggest that the sun is not important in the future of our climate, points to a simplistic model of our future on this planet where, we are told: the only threat is more and more heat, not the return of cold, which is an incredibly dangerous view, out of touch with long-term ice-core records, and out of touch with relatively recent events – The Great Frost, The Great Famine, and the events around 535, with the most severe cooling in the last 2000 years, with all of its severe environmental and social aftereffects.
The flaws in the Luni-Solar theory of Earth’s axial precession (The so-called independent “Wobble” of the Earth allegedly caused by gravitational influences of the moon and sun) are detailed in Walter Cruttenden’s Lost Star of Myth and Time, an excellent book.
This book is a thorough brainstorm on the cause of precession, and of world ages. If you are interested in long cycles of time, ancient mythology, and precession, this is the perfect starting point. It is an easy book to read before attempting to digest Hamlet’s Mill or diving into raw ancient texts. He established the Binary Research Institute: BinaryResearchInstitute.com, as well as the Conference on Precession and Ancient Knowledge (“CPAK”).
You will almost certainly be scratching your head while reading this book, because it asks more questions than answers (which is the same with nearly all books on alternative ancient history today), and is very much at odds with other theories of precession, but he brings up so many good points, and chapter 4, laying out the mechanics of precession, is the best comprehensive analysis of the subject I have yet to come across, and essentially represents a deathblow to the LoonySolar theory of precession.